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You can search the entire site. or go to the recent opinions, or the chronological or subject indices. Miller v. Safeway, Inc. (11/26/2004) sp-5849

Miller v. Safeway, Inc. (11/26/2004) sp-5849

     Notice:   This opinion is subject to correction  before
     publication  in  the  Pacific  Reporter.   Readers  are
     requested to bring errors to the attention of the Clerk
     of  the  Appellate  Courts, 303  K  Street,  Anchorage,
     Alaska 99501, phone (907) 264-0608, fax (907) 264-0878,
     e-mail corrections@appellate.courts.state.ak.us.


            THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF ALASKA

FRANK MILLER,                 )
                              )    Supreme Court No. S-11101
             Appellant,            )
                              )    Superior Court No.
     v.                       )    3KN-01-00436 CI
                              )
SAFEWAY, INC. and             )    O P I N I O N
MICK GALIC,                   )
                              )    [No. 5849 - November 26, 2004]
             Appellees.            )
                              )
               



          Appeal  from the Superior Court of the  State
          of  Alaska,  Third Judicial District,  Kenai,
          John Reese, Judge.

          Appearances:  John E. Havelock,  Law  Offices
          of   John   E.   Havelock,   Anchorage,   for
          Appellant.  Cynthia L. Ducey, Delaney, Wiles,
          Hayes,   Gerety,   Ellis   &   Young,   Inc.,
          Anchorage, for Appellees.

          Before:   Bryner,  Chief  Justice,  Matthews,
          Fabe,  and  Carpeneti,  Justices.  [Eastaugh,
          Justice, not participating.]

          FABE, Justice.


I.   INTRODUCTION

          Frank  Miller  is an Alaska Native who  was  terminated

from  his employment at Safeway after he refused to cut his  hair

in  accordance with a corporate grooming policy.  He sued on  the

grounds  that  the  policy discriminated on the  basis  of  race,

religion, and gender, and that it violated his right to  privacy.

Miller subsequently moved to amend his complaint to add claims of

breach  of  the implied covenant of good faith and fair  dealing,

wrongful  discharge, and common law privacy.  The superior  court

denied  as  untimely Millers request to amend his  complaint  and

granted  Safeways  motion  for summary judgment,  dismissing  the

case.

          Because  we conclude that state action is required  for

Millers  constitutional privacy cause of action,  we  affirm  the

trial  courts ruling dismissing Millers constitutional claim  for

lack of state action.  We also affirm the superior courts rulings

that Miller failed to demonstrate discrimination on the basis  of

race,  sex, or religion.  Miller failed to present evidence  that

the  hair length policy was discriminatory or that he was treated

less favorably than similarly qualified employees on the basis of

race  or  gender, and he failed to provide notice to his employer

that his religious beliefs and practices conflicted with Safeways

hair  length  policy.  But because the trial  court  must  freely

grant  leave  to amend a complaint, and no prejudice  would  have

resulted  to  Safeway in light of the trial  courts  decision  to

vacate the trial date and reopen discovery on certain issues,  we

reverse  the trial courts denial of Millers motion to  amend  his

complaint and remand for a determination whether Safeway breached

the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing or wrongfully

terminated Miller.

II.  FACTS AND PROCEEDINGS

     A.   Facts

          Frank  Miller is an Athabascan Indian and a  member  of

the   Kenaitze  tribe.  Miller  holds  shares  in  Kenai   Native

Association, Inc. and Cook Inlet Region, Inc., and is  an  Alaska

Native  under  federal law.  Miller has worn  his  hair  shoulder

length  or longer all his life, with the exception of the  period

of  time  he  served in the United States Navy between  1961  and

1966.   In an affidavit, Miller explained his reasons for growing

long hair:  I personally like to have my hair long and feel it is

an  expression of my natural personality, my spirituality and  my

ties  with  Alaska Native tradition.  Miller maintains  that  his

mother, who was also Athabascan, raised Millers awareness of  his

Native  culture and tradition and passed down to him  the  Native

practice of growing hair long.

          On  July 29, 1998, Miller was hired to work as a  sales

clerk  for  a Carrs supermarket in the Oaken Keg, the section  of

the  store that markets liquor.  Miller indicates that the  Oaken

Keg  knew that he was an Alaska Native due to his appearance  and

his  statement  that  he  is  American Indian/Alaskan  Native  on

employee  ethnicity records gathered by Safeway in  August  1998.

The store manager who hired Miller informed him that he would  be

allowed  to  keep his hair long so long as he kept it tied  back,

notwithstanding the printed dress code for Carrs employees.   The

dress  code  policy  recites, under a  section  entitled  General

Appearances:

          Well groomed and conservatively styled hair.
          a.     Mens  hair:   No  longer  than  collar
          length.  No beards.
          Mustaches  acceptable if neatly  groomed  and
          not  curved over lower lip.  Sideburns should
          not extend below the ear lobe.
          b.   Womens hair:  Neatly styled.

The  introduction  to the Oaken Keg policies  also  included  the

following statement regarding Millers terms of employment:

          When  you begin with the Oaken Keg, you  will
          be  on a probationary status.  At the end  of
          (90) days, upon successful completion of  the
          probationary  period,  you  will   become   a
          permanent employee.
          
Miller was not advised that he was in violation of the dress code

or  that  he must cut his hair until February of 2001, more  than

two years and seven months after he was hired. Joe Price, Millers

supervisor,  did  not  initially  make  any  comments  to  Miller

regarding  hair length.  Safeway purchased Carrs in  April  1999,

and  Miller attended a Safeway orientation in June 1999 in  which

the  Safeway dress code policy for male employees reiterated  the

previous  Carrs  policy that the hair length  of  male  employees

should  not  exceed the collar-line.  Although Millers  hair  was

noticeably  long  and fell below the collar  line,  none  of  the

supervisors or trainers at the orientation directed any  comments

to  Miller  concerning his hair.  Sometime after the orientation,

Miller and Price had a conversation in which Miller recalls  that

Price  remarked,  unless they say something to me,  you  are  not

required to get a haircut.

          In  January  2001,  a  year and a  half  after  Safeway

acquired Carrs, Miller learned that the Oaken Keg store where  he

worked  was  scheduled to close the next month.  In late  January

2001  all  store  employees, including Miller, were  informed  by

letter  or  memorandum that they would have a job in  either  the

Soldotna  or Kenai Carrs stores.  Miller states that he  expected

that  he  would  be  transferred to one of  these  other  stores.

According to Miller, he received regular job evaluations in which

his performance was judged good to excellent in every respect.

          Close to a week before the store closed, Price informed

Miller  that, according to Safeway manager Mick Galic, if  Miller

wanted  to  transfer to another store he would have  to  cut  his

hair.   Miller told Price that he would not cut his hair.   As  a

result, Safeway terminated Miller.

     B.   Procedural History

          Miller filed a class action complaint on June 8,  2001.

The complaint alleged violations of his constitutional rights  to

privacy  and  freedom  of  speech.  The  complaint  also  alleged

discrimination  based on creed and religion in violation  of  the

Alaska  Constitution,  as  well  as  statutory  claims  under  AS

18.80.220  and  AS 22.10.020 for discrimination  based  on  race,

color, national origin, religion, and gender.  Miller stated  his

action  as a class action on behalf of past and present employees

and  persons  who  had been terminated or rejected  by  Carrs  or

refused employment due to the policies herein complained of.

          Superior Court Judge John Reese presided over the case.

The  parties agreed at their pre-conference planning  meeting  on

October  15,  2001 that they would be ready for  trial  by  April

2003.   The  three  dates for trial requested  in  the  order  of

preference  were:  May 12, 2003, April 27, 2003,  and  April  21,

2003.    Millers  counsel  was  unable  to  attend  the  pretrial

scheduling  conference that took place on October 16,  2001,  and

the trial date selected at the scheduling conference was July 22,

2002,  eight  months  from the date of the conference.1   Millers

counsel  asserts  that  he assumed that the  pretrial  scheduling

order  issued  on November 16, 2001 would roughly  correspond  to

what he had agreed to at the pre-conference planning meeting, and

that  he  did not notice the accelerated trial date and discovery

schedule until mid-January 2002.

          On January 25, 2002, Miller filed a motion to amend the

pretrial  order  to  reset  the trial  date  for  the  originally

requested  time  in  April  2003.  Safeway  opposed  the  motion,

arguing that Millers request was unreasonable because Miller  had

not  adequately participated in discovery or taken the procedural

steps  necessary  to pursue a proper class action.   Judge  Reese

issued  an  order ruling that it did not appear that  Miller  was

diligently pursuing the class action part of the claim, but  that

if  Miller did have a valid class action, the July 22, 2002 trial

date  was  too  soon.  Judge Reese therefore scheduled  a  status

hearing  for  April  22,  2002  to review  the  progress  of  the

preparation  of Millers case.  Safeway asserts that although  the

trial court decided to hold a status conference it did not vacate

or modify discovery deadlines.

          On  April 18, 2002, Safeway moved for summary judgment,

seeking  dismissal of Millers case in its entirety.   On  May  1,

2002,  Miller filed a motion for extension of time to oppose  the

summary judgment asserting three grounds: (1) Safeways failure to

respond  adequately to discovery; (2) the need for more extensive

discovery;  and  (3)  Millers intent to amend  his  complaint  to

include  wrongful termination, breach of the implied covenant  of

good faith and fair dealing, and invasion of privacy.

          Nine days later, on May 10, 2002, Miller filed a motion

to  amend his complaint to add three causes of action:  breach of

          the covenant of good faith and fair dealing, wrongful discharge,

and common law invasion of privacy.  Miller asserted that Safeway

would not be prejudiced by his late filing because the new claims

were  based  on the previously pleaded facts.  On May  30,  2002,

Safeway  opposed  the  motion  to amend  asserting  undue  delay,

prejudice,  and  futility of the amendment.   Millers  motion  to

amend  was not ruled upon until the following January 2003,  when

the trial court denied the motion to amend as not timely.

          Over  six months prior to that ruling, on May 20, 2002,

Judge   Reese  presided  over  the  status  hearing,   originally

scheduled for April 22, to review the progress of the case and to

determine whether to vacate the scheduled trial date of July  22,

2002. The trial court decided to vacate the trial date and set  a

new  trial  schedule  once  the court had  resolved  the  summary

judgment  motion.   The  trial court  also  noted  that  although

discovery  was  officially closed,  pending  discovery  could  be

completed,  as  well  as  any additional discovery  necessary  to

oppose summary judgment.

          On  June  28,  2002, Miller filed a  motion  to  compel

responses  to  the requests for production, interrogatories,  and

requests for admissions.  Miller filed his opposition to Safeways

summary  judgment  motion and cross-motion  for  partial  summary

judgment  on December 23, 2002, before the trial judge issued  an

order  on the motion to compel. The superior court did not  issue

an  order on the motion to compel until January 7, 2003, when  it

ultimately denied the motion, ruling that only discovery relevant

to the summary judgment opposition was allowed.

          In  his opposition to summary judgment, Miller included

a  supplemental affidavit in which he expanded upon his  cultural

upbringing  in an Athabascan village, his spiritual beliefs,  and

Safeways  knowledge of his Alaska Native background.   The  trial

court  struck  this affidavit from the record,  ruling  that  the

[r]elevance   of   the   affidavit  is  questionable,   and   the

religion/hair   length   issues  are  subsequent,   inappropriate

modifications of [Millers] prior deposition testimony.

          On  March 10, 2003, Judge Reese granted Safeways motion

for  summary  judgment in its entirety and denied Millers  cross-

motion  for  summary judgment.  The trial court  concluded  that:

(1)  the  constitutional  claims failed  because  Safeway  was  a

private  actor and state action was required; (2)  there  was  no

evidence  that Safeway intended to discriminate on the  basis  of

race  or  that the hair length policy had a disparate  impact  on

race;  (3)  the  religious discrimination  claim  failed  because

Miller  failed  to  notify Safeway that the  hair  length  policy

conflicted with his religious or spiritual beliefs; and  (4)  the

hair   length    policy  did  not  constitute   unlawful   gender

discrimination.  The superior court dismissed the  action  before

ruling  on Millers motion to certify the class, rendering Millers

class certification motion moot.

          Miller  appeals these rulings arguing that:  (1)  state

action is not a necessary prerequisite for a constitutional claim

under  the privacy amendment of the Alaska Constitution;  (2)  he

presented a prima facie case raising an inference of an intent to

discriminate;  and  sufficient evidence that Alaska  Natives  are

disparately impacted by Safeways hair length policy; (3)  Safeway

did  have  notice  that  its hair length policy  conflicted  with

Millers spiritual beliefs; (4) the hair length policy constituted

unlawful  employment discrimination under AS 18.80.220;  (5)  the

trial  court  erred when it denied Millers motion  to  amend  his

complaint; (6) the trial court should have granted Millers motion

to  certify  the  class;  and (7) the  trial  court  should  have

considered Millers supplemental affidavit.

III. DISCUSSION

          We  have previously recognized in Breese v. Smith2 that

hairstyles   are  a  deeply  personal  expression  of  individual

identity  and a reflection of diversity in a pluralistic society.

In Breese, we held that students attending public schools have  a

constitutional right to wear their hair in accordance with  their

          personal tastes.3  Unlike Breese, the present case involves

constitutional  and statutory claims against a private  actor  in

its  capacity  as  an  employer.  In  Luedtke  v.  Nabors  Alaska

Drilling,  Inc.,4 we declined to extend the constitutional  right

to  privacy to the actions of private actors because the  parties

failed   to   present   a  history  of  the  privacy   amendment5

demonstrating  an intent to bar private action.   In  this  case,

Miller  asks  us  to reconsider our decision in Luedtke,  arguing

that  he has uncovered legislative history of the amendment  that

proves an intent to proscribe private action.

          Although    we    have   not   previously    recognized

constitutional privacy claims against private employers, we  have

firmly  established  that conduct such  as  discrimination  by  a

private  employer  constitutes  an unlawful  employment  practice

under  Alaska  law.6   Miller asserts that Safeway  discriminated

against  him in violation of AS 18.80.220 on the basis  of  race,

religion, and sex when it terminated his employment.7

          The  causes  of  action  for wrongful  termination  and

breach  of  the implied covenant of good faith and  fair  dealing

provide  additional safeguards against employment practices  that

violate  substantial  and fundamental public  policies.   Millers

motion  to amend his complaint to add these claims was denied  by

the  trial court as untimely.  We must therefore consider whether

Alaska Civil Rule 15s mandate that leave to amend shall be freely

given when justice so requires8 required the trial court to grant

Millers  motion  to  amend  his  complaint.   In  deciding   this

question,  we must  balance the possible prejudice to Safeway  in

defending  these claims with the potential harm caused to  Miller

if  he is precluded from litigating these issues.  We will review

each of these questions in turn.

     A.   Standard of Review

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We review a grant of summary judgment using our
independent judgment.9  We must determine whether any genuine
issue of material fact exists and whether the moving party is
entitled to judgment on the law applicable to the established
facts.  All reasonable inferences of fact from proffered
materials must be drawn against the moving party and in favor of
the non-moving party.10  A trial courts decision regarding the
admissibility of evidence, including expert testimony, is
generally reviewed for abuse of discretion, but when
admissibility turns on a question of law, we apply our
independent judgment.11  The superior courts denial of a motion to
amend a complaint is reviewed for abuse of discretion.12
     B.   State  Action Is Required To Pursue a Cause  of  Action
          Under   the  Privacy  Amendment,  Alaska  Constitution,
          Article I, Section 22.
          
          We have long recognized that the primary purpose of the

constitutional  right  to privacy13 is to  protect  the  personal

privacy  of  individuals  from  unwarranted  intrusions  by   the

government.14    In   Luedtke,  we   declined   to   extend   the

constitutional  right to privacy to prohibit  action  by  private

parties  after  determining that the parties had not  established

that  the history of article I, section 22 demonstrated an intent

to proscribe private action.15  We concluded:

          The parties in the case at bar have failed to
          produce  evidence that Alaskas constitutional
          right to privacy was intended to operate as a
          bar  to  private action . .  .  .   Absent  a
          history demonstrating that the amendment  was
          intended  to proscribe private action,  or  a
          proscription   of  private  action   in   the
          language of the amendment itself, we  decline
          to extend the constitutional right to privacy
          to the actions of private parties.[16]
          
Miller  claims  that  the  parties  and  this  court  in  Luedtke

overlooked evidence demonstrating that the privacy amendment  was

intended  to proscribe private action.  Miller asserts  that  the

initial Senate draft of the amendment evidenced an intent on  the

part  of  the  legislature to reach private  parties  because  it

stated that the legislature shall provide for the prosecution and

punishment  of  public officials and private  parties.17   Miller

further contends that our dicta in State v. Planned Parenthood of

Alaska18  suggests  that the legislature did  not  abrogate  this

intent   when  it  subsequently  changed  the  phrasing  of   the

amendment.   In  Planned Parenthood, we took note  of  the  House

Judiciary  Committees  debate on the wording  of  the  amendment,

which originated as Senate Joint Resolution No. 68, after it  was

amended  by  the  Senate  and  transmitted  to  the  House.   The

resolution then stated:

          The  right  of  the  people  to  privacy   is
          recognized  and shall not be  violated.   The
          legislature shall provide for the prosecution
          and   punishment  of  public  officials   and
          private parties who act in violation of  this
          section, and shall provide civil remedies  to
          supplement common law remedies to redress and
          prevent such violations.[19]
          
(Emphasis added.)

          According  to  the  House Judiciary  Committee  minutes

quoted  in  Planned Parenthood, the committee members engaged  in

the  following discussion concerning the second sentence  of  the

resolution that refers to violations of private parties:

          Representative Banfield moved to  delete  the
          second  sentence.   There was  no  objection.
          Art  Peterson,  committee  counsel,  said  we
          could  say  shall implement this  section  or
          shall provide for the implementation of  this
          section  and  leave  out the  details.   This
          would  be stating principles generally  which
          allows     for     easier     administration.
          [Representative]  Barber felt  that  we  were
          leaving out the penalty section.  Moran  said
          this     would    be    covered    in     the
          implementation.[20]
          
          Miller asserts that while the House members altered the

language   of   the  amendment  from  the  drafted  wording   the

legislature  shall provide for the prosecution and punishment  of

public  officials and private parties to its ultimate formulation

as  [t]he legislature shall implement this section,21 this change

did  not reflect a substantive decision that the amendment should

no  longer apply to private parties.  Miller maintains  that  the

          legislature instead intended that the broader language, the

legislature  shall  implement this section, would  encompass  the

previous  view  that the legislature could prosecute  and  punish

both   public  and  private  action.   Safeway  refutes   Millers

interpretation,  arguing  that to the extent  language  regarding

private action was omitted from the final version of Section  22,

we  must  presume  that the legislature intended  to  change  the

meaning.  Moreover, Safeway convincingly argues that the citizens

who  ratified the amendment voted on a version of Section 22 that

did  not  contain any specific language regarding  penalties  for

private  action.  Because we must look to the intent  of  Alaskas

voters,22 the history that Miller must produce exceeds the  scope

of  merely legislative history.  Miller must demonstrate that the

voters  of  Alaska  clearly intended that the  privacy  amendment

should apply to both public and private action.

          The  privacy clause of the California Constitution  has

been  construed to apply to private actions.23  But as we pointed

out  in Luedtke, the history surrounding the 1972 adoption of the

privacy  amendment by the voters of California  evinces  a  clear

intent that the clause applies to private as well as governmental

action.24  The California Supreme Court determined that  election

brochures  which were published by the drafters of its  amendment

satisfied  this  requirement  because  they  contained   frequent

references   to  the  intrusive  activities  of  businesses   and

explained  that the amendment would provide an enforceable  right

of  privacy  against these business interests.   These  brochures

provided sufficient proof to evince an intent on the part of  the

California  voters  to  ratify  a privacy  amendment  that  would

proscribe  private  action.25  But Miller has failed  to  produce

evidence  that  the voters who ratified Section  22  specifically

intended  that  the  privacy amendment should  apply  to  private

action.    Thus,  the  superior  court  did  not   err   in   its

determination that state action is required to assert a violation

of a constitutional right to privacy.

     C.   Miller Did Not Present Evidence Sufficient To Raise  an
          Inference   of   Racial   Discrimination    Under    AS
          18.80.220(a)(1).
          
          The  Alaska Human Rights Act, AS 18.80.220, was modeled

on  federal  law, thus making federal case law relevant  to  this

courts   interpretation of the statute.26  But we have repeatedly

articulated  that  AS 18.80.220 is intended to  be  more  broadly

interpreted  than federal law to further the goal of  eradicating

discrimination.27  We therefore review an employees claims of race

discrimination in light of federal Title VII case law, mindful of

the  strong  statement of purpose in enacting AS  18.80  and  our

legislatures  intent  to put as many teeth into  the  statute  as

possible.28   Under Title VII and AS 18.80.220, an  employee  may

bring both a disparate treatment29 and a disparate impact claim of

employment  discrimination.  Miller  asserted  both  theories  of

discrimination.

          1.   Disparate treatment

          We have determined, in accordance with the reasoning of

the  United  States Supreme Court, that it is usually  impossible

for   an   employee  to  prove  that  the  employer  acted   with

discriminatory  intent.30   We  therefore  apply  the  three-part

pretext analysis adopted by the United States Supreme Court  when

the employee is unable to provide such direct evidence.31   Under

this three-part analysis, the employee carries the initial burden

of  establishing  a  prima facie case of racial discrimination.32

The   burden  then  shifts  to  the  employer  to  articulate   a

legitimate,   nondiscriminatory  reason  why  the  employee   was

discharged.33  The final stage of the test shifts the burden back

to  the employee to show that the employers stated reason for the

discharge was in fact pretext.34  The pretext analysis can assist

the  jury  in  deciding whether the termination  was  based  upon

prohibited discrimination or upon legitimate factors.35

          To establish that Safeway terminated him with intent to

discriminate, Miller must first satisfy the threshold requirement

of  demonstrating  a prima facie case by a preponderance  of  the

          evidence.36  Miller must show that:  (1) he is a member of a

protected class under the statute; (2) he was qualified  for  the

position;  (3)  he  suffered adverse employment  action,  despite

these  qualifications;  and  (4) the employer  treated  him  less

favorably than other qualified persons.37

          The  trial court did not apply this four-part analysis,

but it did make a factual finding that Miller is half Athabascan.

For  the  purpose  of  this argument we will assume  that  Miller

presented  sufficient evidence that he is a member of a protected

racial group.  But on the remaining elements, Millers hair length

did  not  comport  with  Safeways grooming  qualifications  which

require  that male employees should not allow their hair to  fall

below the collar line.  Miller was allowed an exemption from this

qualification  for  over  two and a  half  years,  and  then  was

terminated  for  failing to abide by the  policy.   Although  the

retraction  of  this  apparent waiver  may  have  occurred  under

circumstances  that  were wrongful or which breached  an  implied

covenant  of  good faith and fair dealing, as we  discuss  below,

Miller  does  not  present  evidence that  he  was  treated  less

favorably than non-Native male employees with long hair.

          2.   Disparate impact

          We  have  held  that  an expansive application  of  the

disparate impact theory comports with the strong purposes  behind

AS  18.80.220.38   In Thomas v. Anchorage Telephone  Utility,  we

adopted  an analysis for disparate impact claims similar  to  the

one enunciated by the United States Supreme Court.39   In order to

present  a  prima facie case of discrimination, an employee  must

show  that a facially neutral employment act, practice, or policy

has  a  significant discriminatory impact on a protected group.40

If  the  employee proves discriminatory impact, the employer  has

the  burden of proving that its actions are justified by business

necessity or job-relatedness.41

          Miller  has  not  presented any studies,  research,  or

testimony  to  prove  that Alaska Native  males  are  disparately

          impacted by Safeways hair length requirement.  His attempt to

make  a  prima facie case is confined to the analysis that [w]ith

respect    to   disparate   impact   [Safeways   knowledge    and

responsibility] is icing on the cake.  Miller relies on  folklore

and   literary  texts  and  he  makes  no  effort  to  synthesize

information to demonstrate a palpable theory that Alaska  Natives

are  disparately  impacted  by Safeways  policies.   Due  to  the

inadequacy  of  evidence we need not decide  whether  a  grooming

policy  pertaining to hair length would amount  to  impermissible

discrimination if it were shown to have a disproportionate impact

on Alaska Native males.42

     D.   Miller  Did  Not  Establish  a  Prima  Facie  Case   of
          Religious Discrimination under 18.80.220(a)(1).
          
          Miller also contends that Safeway discriminated against

him  when it  terminated him for expressing his religious beliefs

through  his  hairstyle.   To  assess  whether  an  employee  has

established  a  prima facie case of religious  discrimination  we

follow  the approach employed by the Ninth Circuit in  Title  VII

cases,  as articulated in Opuku-Boateng v. State of California.43

This approach requires the plaintiff to demonstrate that:  (1) he

or  she  has a bona fide religious belief that conflicts with  an

employment  requirement; (2) he or she informed the  employer  of

this  belief;  and (3) he or she suffered an adverse  consequence

for   failing   to   comply   with  the  conflicting   employment

requirement.44   Once these elements have been  established,  the

burden  then  shifts to the employer to show that  it  could  not

accommodate  the  plaintiffs  religious  beliefs  without   undue

hardship.45  The plaintiff must provide more than a scintilla  of

proof  for  each  of the three elements of his  or  her  case  to

survive summary judgment.46

          Turning  to  Millers  claim,  he  did  present  to  the

superior  court an affidavit in which he described his long  hair

as  an  expression of his spirituality and his ties  with  Alaska

Native  tradition.   The trial court correctly acknowledged  that

Miller met this first requirement.  Millers claim falters in  the

          second part of the test which requires Miller to have informed

his employer about his spiritual beliefs.  Because Miller did not

give  notice  to Safeway regarding his religious beliefs  or  the

fact that his hairstyle was tied to his spiritual beliefs, he has

not  satisfied the second requirement.  We therefore  affirm  the

superior courts grant of summary judgment on this issue.

     E.   Safeways  Grooming  Policy Did  Not  Constitute  Gender
          Discrimination Under AS 18.80.220(a)(1).
          
             It  is  undisputed  that  Safeways  grooming  policy

established a  hair length requirement for male employees but did

not  restrict the hair length of female employees.   Under  Title

VII  Section 703(e) an employer cannot discriminate on the  basis

of  sex  unless  there is a bona fide occupational  qualification

reasonably  necessary to the normal operation of that  particular

business enterprise.47  As Safeway asserts, however, many  courts

interpreting  Title  VII have held that it  is  not  unlawful  to

institute  a sex-based grooming policy that treats men and  women

differently.48  In Harper v. Blockbuster Entertainment Corp., the

Eleventh  Circuit  noted  that the Equal  Employment  Opportunity

Commission  initially  took the opposing  position,  but  finally

concluded  that successful litigation of male hair  length  cases

would be virtually impossible in the face of the unanimity of the

courts of appeal that considered the issue.49  These courts  have

generally  found  that grooming regulations have  no  significant

effect  on the employment opportunities of either sex,  and  that

the  length  of  an employees hair more closely  relates  to  the

employers  choice  of  how  to  run  a  business  than  to  equal

employment opportunity.50  Miller fails to cite authority from any

jurisdiction  holding  that  enforcing  different   hair   length

requirements  for  male and female employees is a  discriminatory

employment practice.

          We  agree  with  the reasoning of the numerous  federal

cases  addressing this issue and conclude that Alaska law  should

not  be  more  broadly construed in this particular respect.   We

conclude  that  Miller has not demonstrated  that  Safeways  hair

          grooming policy discriminated on the basis of gender.51  We affirm

the superior courts ruling on this issue.52

     F.   The  Trial  Court Erred in Failing To Allow  Miller  To
          Amend His Complaint.
          
          In  the  absence of a motion filed on the eve of trial,

[l]eave  to amend is liberally granted in Alaska,53 and  we  have

long  held  that  leave should freely be given  unless  it  would

[result] in an injustice.54  A pro-amendment ethos dominates  the

intent  and  judicial construction of Rule 15(a).55  And  as  the

United  States  Supreme Court noted in interpreting  the  federal

version  of  Rule 15(a) in Foman v. Davis, the rules  declaration

that  leave  to  amend  shall be freely  given  when  justice  so

requires is a mandate that is to be heeded.56  We have recognized

that  if  there is no apparent or declared reason  such as  undue

delay,  bad  faith or dilatory motive on the part of the  movant,

repeated  failure  to cure deficiencies by amendments  previously

allowed,  undue  prejudice to the opposing  party  by  virtue  of

allowance  of  the  amendment, futility of amendment,  etc.   the

leave  sought should, as the rules require, be freely  given.  57

The  trial  courts proffered reason for denying  the  motion  was

untimeliness.  There was no mention of undue delay, bad faith, or

prejudice.    Yet  prejudice  to  the  opposing  party   is   the

predominate  factor in determining whether or not to grant  leave

to amend. 58  [D]elay alone is an insufficient basis upon which to

deny  a  motion to amend.59  Even if a party unreasonably delayed

moving  to  amend it is an abuse of discretion to deny  leave  to

amend  where  the opposing party was not misled or prejudiced  by

the  amendment.60   The policy that a court should  freely  grant

amendments limits a courts ability to deny leave to amend, and in

a  proper  case, may warrant a finding of abuse of discretion  in

denying leave.61

          We  reversed the superior courts decision to deny leave

to amend in Betz v. Chena Hot Springs Group after concluding that

the  hardship to the [moving party] occasioned by denial of [the]

amendment  is  great  while the prejudice .  .  .  from  allowing

          [leave] is not substantial.62  We determined in Betz that the

moving  partys delay in filing a May motion to amend was  perhaps

undue   given  the September trial date and the August  discovery

cut  off.63  However, once the trial was put over for a year,  we

concluded that this [delay] factor did not weigh heavily  against

the [moving party].64  Miller filed his motion to amend on May 10,

2002,  the  same month as the status hearing on the viability  of

the  July  22,  2002  trial date, and within six  months  of  the

pretrial scheduling order which was issued by the trial court  on

November  16, 2001.  The trial court ultimately vacated the  July

2002  trial  date  and  decided  to postpone  rescheduling  until

resolution  of  the  summary judgment  motion.   The  court  also

reopened  discovery as to the issues raised by  Safeways  summary

judgment motion and pending discovery.  Yet despite the fact that

Miller  filed his motion to amend the complaint in May 2002,  the

trial court did not issue a ruling on the amendment until January

7,  2003.  Because the trial court ordered a status conference to

review  the trial schedule, subsequently vacated the trial  date,

reopened discovery on some matters, and then retained the  motion

under  advisement  for  over seven months before  ruling  on  it,

Millers motion to amend should not have been denied on the  basis

of undue delay.65

          In  Betz, we further considered the potential prejudice

that  may result to the nonmoving party and determined that  when

the  new claim did not require any additional fact finding . .  .

[applying] a new legal theory to those facts is not the  kind  of

prejudice that should defeat an amendment.66  And as we recognized

in  Gamble  v. Northstore Partnership,  the remedy for inadequate

time  to prepare on a new theory is a continuance, not preventing

a  trial  on  the  merits of the new theory. 67   The  amendments

proposed  by Miller all involved the same transaction and  raised

facts  identical  to the other claims pleaded.   Given  that  the

timeline for discovery was extended after Safeway received notice

of  Millers new claims, Safeway was not unreasonably burdened  by

          the task of preparing for litigation of the new theories.  And

because  the  trial date was postponed, Safeway had  considerable

time  to  conduct discovery before trial.  As the  United  States

Supreme  Court  stated  in Foman, [i]f the  underlying  facts  or

circumstances relied upon by a plaintiff may be a proper  subject

of  relief,  he ought to be afforded an opportunity to  test  his

claim  on  the  merits.68  The hardship to Miller  occasioned  by

denying  him  the  opportunity to test the  merit  of  his  claim

outweighs any prejudice to Safeway.

          Safeway  last argues that the denial of the  motion  to

amend  was  proper because it proposed claims that  were  futile.

Millers motion included claims for breach of the implied covenant

of  good  faith  and  fair  dealing,  wrongful  termination,  and

invasion  of  privacy.  We will proceed to consider  the  alleged

futility of these claims.

          The implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing  is

a  part of every employment contract in Alaska.69  It is designed

to  prevent  the abuses of unfettered discretion  inherent  in  a

situation  of  unequal bargaining power.70  An  employee  is  not

required to leap at his masters every command.71

          In  Bakken  v. North American Coal Corp.,72  a  federal

district  court  in North Dakota found that a  genuine  issue  of

material  fact existed as to bad faith and breach of the  implied

covenant  when an employer represented to its employee  that  she

could  transfer her employment when her department was  moved  to

another  city  but subsequently denied her this  opportunity  and

terminated  her due to the alleged elimination of her position.73

Miller  was  also informed by Safeway that he would  be  able  to

transfer to another store in Kenai or Soldotna when the Oaken Keg

store  where  he  worked was scheduled to  close.   Safeway  then

terminated Miller on one weeks notice based on his failure to cut

his  hair despite its previous decision to exempt Miller from the

hair  length  policy for over two and a half years.  Safeway  has

provided  no  reason for why it chose to enforce the hair  length

          policy against Miller at the time of transfer.   For purposes of

this  motion, Safeway has failed to show that it would be  futile

to  allow  Miller  to  claim that Safeway  breached  the  implied

covenant  of  good  faith  and fair dealing  by  terminating  him

despite  its  representation of continued employment  in  another

city, or by wrongfully terminating him in violation of the public

policy supporting the protection of employee privacy.74

IV.  CONCLUSION

          Because we conclude that state action is required for a

cause of action under Alaskas constitutional right of privacy, we

AFFIRM  the trial courts decision on this issue.   Because Miller

failed  to  produce evidence of discrimination on  the  basis  of

race, sex, or religion, we AFFIRM on all of these issues as well.

And  we  conclude that issues pertaining to class  certification,

the supplemental affidavit, and supplements to the record are all

subsequently mooted.  But we REVERSE and REMAND the trial  courts

decision  to  deny  Miller leave to amend his  complaint  because

addition of the claims alleging breach of the implied covenant of

good  faith  and  fair dealing and wrongful termination  did  not

prejudice  Safeway,  and it is premature to conclude  that  these

claims had no merit.75

_______________________________
     1     Counsel  for Safeway asserts that when she arrived  at
the scheduling conference, she learned that Millers counsel would
not  be  attending the meeting, but that he had given his consent
to  proceed  with the conference.  She asserted in  an  affidavit
that  based on that confirmation and my availability, one of  the
dates proffered by the judge, [July 22, 2002], was selected.

     2    501 P.2d 159 (Alaska 1972).

     3    Id. at 168.

     4    768 P.2d 1123, 1130 (Alaska 1989).

     5    Alaska Const. art. I,  22.

     6     Raad  v. Alaska State Commn for Human Rights, 86  P.3d
899 (Alaska 2004); Wondzell v. Alaska Wood Prods., Inc., 601 P.2d
584, 585 (Alaska 1979); AS 18.80.220.

     7     Millers complaint also alleged a violation of his free
speech  rights  and  discrimination on the  basis  of  creed  and
religion  in  violation of the Alaska Constitution.  Miller  does
not  argue that the superior court erred in entering judgment  on
these claims.

     8    Alaska R. Civ. P. 15(a).

     9     e,  824  P.2d 718, 720 (Alaska 1992)).Laidlaw Transit,
Inc. v. Crouse

     10    Id. (citing Wright v. State, 824 P.2d 718, 720 (Alaska
1992)).

     11     Laidlaw  Transit, Inc. v. Crouse, 53 P.3d 1093,  1097
(Alaska 2002).

     12    Bauman v. Day, 942 P.2d 1130, 1132 (Alaska 1997).

     13    The Alaska Constitution was amended in 1972 to add the
following section: Right of Privacy.  The right of the people  to
privacy   is   recognized  and  shall  not  be  infringed.    The
legislature shall implement this section.  Alaska Const. art.  I,
22.

     14     State v. Planned Parenthood of Alaska, 35 P.3d 30, 38
(Alaska 2001); Luedtke, 768 P.2d at 1129 (quoting Woods &  Rohde,
Inc.  v.  State, Dept of Labor, 565 P.2d 138, 148 (1977) (quoting
Weltz  v.  State, 431 P.2d 502, 506 (Alaska 1967)  (referring  to
article  I,  section 14 guarantees against unreasonable  searches
and seizures))).

     15    768 P.2d at 1130.

     16    Id.

     17    1972 Senate Joint Resolution No. 68, 7th Leg., 2d Sess.
(May 5, 1972).  Miller also maintains that we uncovered a part of
the  legislative history in our dicta in Valley Hosp. Assn,  Inc.
v.  Mat-Su  Coalition  for Choice, 948 P.2d 963,  969-70  (Alaska
1997) where we noted similar phrasing in the initial Senate draft
of the amendment, Senate Joint Resolution No. 68.

     18    35 P.3d 30 (Alaska 2001).

     19    Id. at 36.

     20    Id. at 37 (quoting H. Jud. Comm. Minutes at 318-19, 7th
Leg.,  1st Sess. (May 30, 1972)) (original brackets and  ellipsis
omitted).

     21    Alaska Const. art.  I,  22.

     22     See,  e.g., Hickel v. Halford, 872 P.2d  171,  177-81
(Alaska 1994) (construing term used in article IX, section  17(a)
of  Alaska  Constitution  by looking at  language  of  provision,
purpose of amendment, statement in support of amendment published
in  voter  pamphlet,  and  language  used  in  related  statutory
provisions).

     23    Luedtke, 768 P.2d at 1130.

     24     768 P.2d at 1129-30 (citing White v. Davis, 533  P.2d
222, 233-34 (Cal. 1975)).

     25    White, 533 P.2d at 233-34; Luedtke, 768 P.2d at 1130.

     26    Era Aviation, Inc. v. Lindfors, 17 P.3d 40, 43 (Alaska
2000); Wondzell v. Alaska Wood Products, Inc., 601 P.2d 584,  585
(Alaska 1979) (citations omitted).

     27    Wondzell, 601 P.2d at 585.

     28     Id. at 585-86 (quoting McLean v. State, 583 P.2d 867,
869 (Alaska 1978) (internal quotations omitted)).

     29      Miller  can  assert  both  an  individual  disparate
treatment action as well as a systemic disparate treatment  claim
alleging  a  pattern  and practice of discrimination.   From  the
evidence presented, it appears that Miller is bringing an  action
based  on  individual disparate treatment and systemic  disparate
impact.

     30    Haroldsen, 901 P.2d at 431; United States Postal Serv.
Bd.  of Governors v. Aikens, 460 U.S. 711, 716 (1983) (There will
seldom  be  eyewitness  testimony  as  to  the  employers  mental
processes.).

     31     Raad v. Alaska State Commn for Human Rights, 86  P.3d
899,  904 (Alaska 2004) (citing McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green,
411 U.S. 792, 802 (1973)); Haroldsen, 901 P.2d 426 at 430.

     32    Raad, 86 P.3d at 904.

     33    Id.

     34    Id.

     35    Era Aviation, 17 P.3d at 44.

     36     St.  Marys Honor Center v. Hicks, 509 U.S.  502,  506
(1993).

     37    Haroldsen, 901 P.2d at 430; Era Aviation, 17 P.3d at 44
n.10  (citing McDonnell Douglas, 411 U.S. 792, 802).  We  adopted
the  McDonnell  Douglas prima facie test for disparate  treatment
employment discrimination cases in Alaska State Commn  for  Human
Rights  v.  Yellow Cab, 611 P.2d 487 (Alaska 1980).  The  Supreme
Court noted in McDonnell Douglas that the prima facie standard is
not inflexible, as [t]he facts necessarily will vary in Title VII
cases,  and  the  specification . . . of the  prima  facie  proof
required  from respondent is not necessarily applicable in  every
respect in differing factual situations.  411 U.S. at 802, n.13.

     38    Thomas v. Anchorage Telephone Util., 741 P.2d 618, 629
(Alaska 1987).

     39    Id. at 628.

     40     Id.  (citing Intl Bhd. of Teamsters v. United States,
431 U.S. 324, 349 (1977)).

     41    Id. (citing Abermarle Paper Co. v. Moody, 422 U.S. 405,
425 (1975); Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424, 432 (1971)).

     42     Although we do not address this issue, we  note  that
other jurisdictions have concluded that grooming policies do  not
disparately impact racial minorities under Title VII section 703.
See  Rogers  v.  American Airlines, Inc., 527 F. Supp.  229,  232
(S.D.N.Y.  1981) (An all-braided hair style is an easily  changed
characteristic,  and, even if socioculturally associated  with  a
particular race or nationality, is not an impermissible basis for
distinctions  in  the application of employment practices  by  an
employer.  (citation omitted)); see also Eatman v. United  Parcel
Serv.,  194  F.  Supp. 2d 256, 262 (S.D.N.Y.  2002).   But  these
decisions  have  been  criticized by several  commentators.   See
Roberto   J.  Gonzalez,  Cultural  Rights  and  the  Immutability
Requirement in Disparate Impact Doctrine, 55 Stan. L. Rev.  2195,
2215-16  (2003)  (arguing that the immutability  requirement  for
disparate  impact  adopted in Rogers is  unsubstantiated  because
[t]he landmark case that established the disparate impact theory,
Griggs  v. Duke Power Co., found an employer liable for requiring
applicants  to have a high school diploma or pass an intelligence
test  . . . .  [Requiring a diploma] in no way had to fall within
the  definition of race [as immutable] in order to trigger  Title
VII scrutiny.); see also Kenji Yoshino, Covering, 111 Yale L.  J.
769, 781 (2002).  (Yoshino writes that the contemporary forms  of
discrimination  to  which racial minorities and  women  are  most
vulnerable  often  take the guise of enforced [assimilation].   A
member  of  a  racial minority can be sanctioned for  failing  to
minimize  the  race-salient traits that make her  different  from
others:  for wearing cornrows, for lapsing into Spanish,  or  for
speaking  with  an  accent.).  See generally  Barbara  J.  Flagg,
Subtle Opposition, 34 Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 605, 608-09 (2003)
(Flagg  argues that coercive pressure on minorities to assimilate
would  seem to fit comfortably within the disparate impact  model
of liability, but difficulties arise in practice if the workplace
includes only small numbers of employees, if other non-whites are
not  adversely  affected by the challenged  policy  because  they
elect  to  assimilate,  if  a court requires  that  a  challenged
practice must disparately affect the employers own workplace,  or
if plaintiffs cannot provide proof of the criterion.).

     43    95 F.3d 1461 (9th Cir. 1996).

     44    Grant v. Joe Myers Toyota, Inc., 11 S.W.3d 419, 422-23
(2000);  Opuku-Boateng, 95 F.3d at 1467 n.9; Turpen v.  Missouri-
Kansas-Texas R.R. Co., 736 F.2d 1022, 1026 (5th Cir. 1984).

     45    Grant, 11 S.W.3d at 423.

     46    Id.

     47    Title VII,  703(e), 42 U.S.C. 2000(e).

     48    Harper v. Blockbuster Entmt Corp., 139 F.3d 1385, 1388-
89  (11th  Cir. 1998); Tavora v. New York Mercantile Exchange,101
F.3d  907, 908 (2d Cir. 1996); Longo v. Carlisle DeCoppet &  Co.,
537  F.2d  685, 685 (2d Cir. 1976); Earwood v. Contl Southeastern
Lines, Inc., 539 F.2d 1349, 1351 (4th Cir. 1976); Barker v.  Taft
Broad.  Co., 549 F.2d 400, 401 (6th Cir. 1977); Knott v. Missouri
Pac.  R.R.  Co.,  527 F.2d 1249, 1252 (8th Cir. 1975);  Baker  v.
California  Land  Title Co., 507 F.2d 895, 898 (9th  Cir.  1974);
Dodge  v.  Giant  Food, Inc., 488 F.2d 1333, 1336-37  (D.C.  Cir.
1973).

     49    Harper, 139 F.3d at 1388 (citation and quotation marks
omitted).

     50    Tavora, 101 F.3d at 908; Willingham, 507 F.2d at 1091.

     51     We  can  envision a different set  of  circumstances,
however,  in  which  an  employers grooming  or  appearance-based
policies  could  give rise to a claim of sex discrimination.   An
airlines   policy  of  hiring  only  attractive   female   flight
attendants  provides one such example.  See Wilson  v.  Southwest
Airlines  Co., 517 F. Supp. 292 (N.D. Tex. 1981).   The  Northern
District  of Texas rejected Southwest Airliness defense  that  it
may  discriminate  against males because  its  attractive  female
flight  attendants  and  ticket  agents  personify  the  airlines
[image].   Id.  at  293, 304.   See also Diaz v.  Pan  Am.  World
Airways, Inc., 442 F.2d 385, 387-88 (5th Cir. 1971).

     52     Because we hold that all of the foregoing claims  are
not   viable,   we  need  not  discuss  the  matters   of   class
certification, the supplemental affidavit, and the supplements to
the  record because they were all based on these claims  and  are
now mooted.

     53     Valdez Fisheries Dev. Assn, Inc. v. Alyeska  Pipeline
Serv. Co., 45 P.3d 657, 671 (Alaska 2002).

     54    Thompsons Estate v. Mercedes-Benz, Inc., 514 P.2d 1269,
1271 (Alaska 1973).

     55     3 James Wm. Moore, Federal Practice  15.14[1] (3d ed.
2003).

     56    371 U.S. 178, 182 (1962).

     57     Betz v. Chena Hot Springs Group, 742 P.2d 1346,  1348
(Alaska 1987) (citing Foman, 371 U.S. at 182).

     58    Thompsons Estate, 514 P.2d at 1271.

     59    Betz, 742 P.2d at 1348.

     60    Kittredge Sports Co. v. Superior Court, 261 Cal. Rptr.
857,  859-60  (Cal. App. 1989) (citing Higgins v. Del  Faro,  176
Cal. Rptr. 704 (Cal. App. 1981)); see also  Smith v. Costa Lines,
Inc., 97 F.R.D. 451, 453 (N.D. Cal. 1983) (holding that it may be
held  an  abuse of discretion for the court to deny leave  unless
there  is  a  demonstrable showing of prejudice  to  an  opposing
party);  Karn  v. Coldwell Banker Residential Real Estate,  Inc.,
705  So. 2d 680, 680-81 (Fla. Dist. App. 1998) (holding that  the
trial  court abused its discretion when it failed to grant  leave
to the moving party to amend their complaint before final summary
judgment was entered).

     61    3 Moore, supra note 55, at 15.14[1].

     62    Betz, 742 P.2d at 1350.

     63    Id. at 1349.

     64    Id.

     65    See also Bamm, Inc. v. GAF Corp., 651 F.2d 389, 391-92
(5th Cir. 1981) (The trial court abused its discretion in denying
a  motion  to  amend  after  it had  retained  the  motion  under
advisement for nearly five months before denying it.  Much of the
delay  is  attributable  to  the time spent  in  considering  the
motion.).

     66    Betz, 742 P.2d at 1350.

     67     Gamble v. Northstore Pship, 907 P.2d 477, 484 (Alaska
1995)  (quoting Wright v. Vickaryous, 598 P.2d 490,  496  (Alaska
1979)).

     68    371 U.S. at 182.

     69    Haroldsen, 901 P.2d at 429.

     70    Stark v. Circle K Corp., 751 P.2d 162,167 (Mont. 1988)
(citation omitted).

     71    Id. at 167.

     72    641 F. Supp. 1015 (D.N.D. 1986).

     73    Id. at 1022-23.

     74    In Luedtke, we recognized that violation by an employer
of   a  public  policy,  including  the  policy  supporting   the
protection  of employee privacy, can constitute a breach  of  the
implied  covenant of good faith and fair dealing.   Luedtke,  768
P.2d at 1130.  In Luedtke, the discharge of employees who refused
to  submit  to  urinalysis did not constitute  a  breach  of  the
implied  covenant because the policy supporting employee  privacy
was outweighed by the policy supporting employee safety.  Id.  It
is premature to determine that Millers claim that his termination
for  refusal  to  cut his hair breached the implied  covenant  is
without merit.

          Millers  motion to amend his complaint also included  a
stand-alone claim of invasion of his common law right to privacy.
In  Luedtke, we held that former employees who refused to take  a
drug  test had no cause of action for invasion of privacy against
their  employer because the intrusion was prevented  from  taking
place.  Luedtke, 768 P.2d at 1138.  Because Miller refused to cut
his  hair,  no  intrusion  took  place.   Thus,  his  stand-alone
invasion of privacy claim is futile.

     75     In light of our reversal of the trial courts grant of
summary  judgment, all attorneys fees awarded by the trial  court
are vacated.