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You can search the entire site. or go to the recent opinions, or the chronological or subject indices. Kinzel v. Discovery Drilling, Inc. (06/25/2004) sp-5820

Kinzel v. Discovery Drilling, Inc. (06/25/2004) sp-5820

     Notice:   This opinion is subject to correction  before
     publication  in  the  Pacific  Reporter.   Readers  are
     requested to bring errors to the attention of the Clerk
     of  the  Appellate  Courts, 303  K  Street,  Anchorage,
     Alaska 99501, phone (907) 264-0608, fax (907) 264-0878,
     e-mail corrections@appellate.courts.state.ak.us.


            THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF ALASKA

JEFFREY KINZEL and            )
CHERYL KINZEL,           )    Supreme Court No. S-10190
                              )
               Appellants,         )
                              )    Superior Court No.
     v.                       )    3AN-99-10959 CI
                              )
DISCOVERY DRILLING, INC.,     )    O P I N I O N
and HART CROWSER, INC.,       )
                              )
               Appellees.           )     [No. 5820  -  June  25,
2004]
                              )


          Appeal  from the Superior Court of the  State
          of    Alaska,   Third   Judicial    District,
          Anchorage, Peter A. Michalski, Judge.

          Appearances:   Marion C.  Kelly,  Bernard  P.
          Kelly, Wade, Kelly & Sullivan, Anchorage, for
          Appellants.  Paul S. Wilcox, Lisa  C.  Hamby,
          Hughes  Thorsness Powell Huddleston &  Bauman
          LLC,   Anchorage,   for  Appellee   Discovery
          Drilling, Inc.  Mary L. Pate, Eide, Miller  &
          Pate,  P.C.,  Anchorage,  for  Appellee  Hart
          Crowser, Inc.

          Before:    Fabe,  Chief  Justice,   Matthews,
          Eastaugh, Bryner, and Carpeneti, Justices.

          MATTHEWS, Justice.

INTRODUCTION

          Jeffrey Kinzel filed an occupational safety and  hazard

complaint  against  Hart  Crowser, the  company  with  which  his

employer,   Discovery  Drilling,  had  subcontracted.    He   was

subsequently reassigned to a different worksite, where he injured

his  back.   He  filed for workers compensation and took  medical

leave,  but was soon fired.  He sued Hart Crowser for defamation,

negligence, and intentional interference with contract,  and  his

employer  for  defamation and wrongful termination.   After  some

claims  were  dismissed on summary judgment, a  jury  rendered  a

verdict for both defendants on all remaining claims.  This appeal

involves  a number of challenges to the superior courts pre-trial

and trial rulings.

FACTS

          In  the  summer  of 1998, Kinzel was a  laborer  on  an

environmental  cleanup  site at Fort Wainwright.   As  a  general

laborer Kinzel was open to any kind of work, but the majority  of

his  time  was  spent  digging trenches in  a  small,  closed-cab

backhoe.   This was considered less demanding work than  some  of

the other job possibilities at the site.

          Kinzels  employer, Discovery Drilling,  Inc.,  provided

subcontracting  work  for Hart Crowser,  Inc.,  an  environmental

engineering  company.  The two companies had a long relationship.

For  the  Fort  Wainwright site, Hart Crowser subcontracted  with

Discovery   for   both   drilling   and   remediation   services.

Specifically, Discoverys role in the project was in part soil and

ground  water remediation, a process of digging trenches  with  a

backhoe  and  then assembling a grid of wells, pumps,  and  pipes

known  as  a  remediation system intended to remove environmental

contaminants from groundwater and soil.  This was a  two-man  job

for  Discovery,  employing only Kinzel  and  his  colleague  Gary

Erickson.  Though Erickson had more seniority, Kinzel served in a

de  facto  supervisory  capacity for the pair,  as  he  was  more

familiar  with the Fort Wainwright location and the Hart  Crowser

employees who worked there from his previous summer at the  site.

In  particular, Kinzel had more open lines of communication  with

Craig  Martin,  Hart  Crowser project  manager  and  the  ranking

supervisor  at  the site.  Kinzels supervision  applied  only  to

Erickson,  and he was subject to the supervision and  control  of

both his employer and Hart Crowser.

          Beginning in May of that year and continuing until  the

Fourth  of  July weekend, the weather was hot and  windy.   As  a

result,  Kinzel  and Erickson had problems with dust.   In  early

June, because of a severe sinus infection, Erickson was forced to

visit  a doctor.  He immediately suspected that his sickness  was

connected  to the worksite dust, and filed an anonymous complaint

with  the  Alaska  Department of Labor, Division of  Occupational

Safety  and  Health  (OSH).  It appears that this  complaint  was

never investigated.

          Kinzel  also sought medical attention for a respiratory

infection.   This  resulted in his having to  take  several  days

leave.   Kinzel  testified that after his sickness  he  was  more

vocal   about  potential  safety  issues  involving   dust,   but

eventually found it pointless to keep on complaining because Hart

Crowsers project manager, Martin, didnt want to hear about it.

          The  dust  became a bone of contention  because  Martin

thought  the Discovery employees were wasting too much  time  and

were  going  over his head to solve a problem that  he  felt  was

minor  or  nonexistent.  Martin found Kinzels efforts  especially

problematic  because Hart Crowser and Discovery  employees  often

worked on joint projects, and he believed Hart Crowser could  get

little or nothing done if Discovery employees were spending  time

trying to avoid or control dust.  Martin told Kinzel and Erickson

to  quit . . . whining and if [they] have a problem with the dust

[they] can just leave.

          During the Fourth of July weekend, Discoverys president

Kyle  Brown  and  Kinzel met to discuss the growing  difficulties

between  Discovery  and  Hart  Crowser  employees  at  the   Fort

Wainwright site.  Brown seemed to be particularly concerned  with

the  tension between Kinzel and Martin.  He and Kinzel  spoke  of

communication problems and apparently came to a mutual  agreement

about getting a fresh start at the site.

          After the weekend, dust became less of a problem as the

work changed to a new area.  However this new worksite emitted  a

pungent, gasoline or pesticide odor which many feared was unsafe.

Hart  Crowser  tested the ground water but found  no  significant

contamination.   Around the same time, fearing that  nothing  was

being  done in response to Ericksons complaint, Kinzel  filed  an

OSH complaint, eventually prompting an investigation.

          Around  the time of the OSH inspectors arrival  at  the

site,  Hart  Crowser cordoned off an exclusion zone encircling  a

suspected area of contamination.  No one was permitted into  this

zone  without a respirator.  Kinzel expressed some resistence  to

wearing a mask just to enter the zone, because this would require

him to shave off his beard.

          On  July  25  a  Hart Crowser employee, Bryan  Johnson,

reported to Martin that he had seen Kinzel in the exclusion  zone

without  a  respirator  for the second time.   At  Hart  Crowsers

request  Kinzel was asked to leave the Fort Wainwright  worksite,

and he reported back to Discoverys Anchorage headquarters.

          After   Kinzel   returned   to   Anchorage,   Discovery

reassigned  him  to a more arduous job in Glennallen,  under  the

supervision of a foreman whom Kinzel believed to be hard  on  his

men.  After several days of long shifts and heavy lifting, Kinzel

suffered  serious  back pain.  He asked to be relieved  from  the

project, and on August 2 returned to Anchorage, visiting a doctor

the  following day.  His doctor, Dr. Derek Hagen, gave him a note

releasing him to light duty work only.

          Kinzel  returned  to the Discovery  office  and  had  a

conversation with Brown, the substance of which was  disputed  at

trial.  Discovery claims that Brown had light duty work available

for  Kinzel, but that Kinzel told Brown he was supposed  to  take

two  to  three  days off, never revealing the light duty  doctors

note.  Kinzel claims that he attempted to give the note to Brown,

but that Brown refused to look at it.  According to Kinzel, Brown

then  said, if you cant work in the field, then you might as well

go  home.  Discovery counters that Kinzel did not return to  work

after the 2-3 days he said the doctor told him to be off.

          On  August  12   Kinzel  filed a  workers  compensation

injury  report.  Brown signed the report on the same day, stating

that there was no injury  the employee does not like the work and

has  been  reassigned.  On August 12 Kinzel took a new note  from

Dr.  Hagen to Brown; the note stated that Kinzel should not  work

until the end of August.

          Brown  claims that he understood Kinzel was to  be  off

work only until the end of August.  But on August 31 Brown signed

a form containing Dr. Hagens handwritten statement that indicated

that Kinzel was to be off work until October 8 pending orthopedic

evaluation.   Brown  claims  he never  saw   this  statement  and

instead  only signed the form where asked.  The doctors statement

is  a  few lines above the section Brown filled out.  Brown wrote

ALLEGED under the forms reference to illness or injury.

          In  early September Brown terminated Kinzels employment

at   Discovery.   Brown  eventually  sent  a  letter  to   Kinzel

explaining  his reasons for the termination.1  The letter  states

that the reasons

          pertinent to your discharge are your directly
          lying to me about the results of your doctors
          visit  on August 3rd, 1998, including failure
          to  give me the doctors note from that visit,
          and failure to return to work, to come by the
          office  in  person, or to call the office  on
          September  1st,  1998 as was specified  in  a
          later   doctors  note  that  we  did  receive
          clearing you to return to work on that  date.
          We  received  no further correspondence  from
          you or notes from any doctors on your behalf.
          You  clearly  had no interest in  maintaining
          your  job or showing even common courtesy  to
          your employer.
          
PROCEEDINGS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Kinzel and his wife Cheryl filed the present suit
against Discovery and Hart Crowser in October 1999, alleging
retaliatory and constructive discharge claims against Discovery,
multiple defamation claims against both defendants, an
intentional interference with contract claim against Hart
Crowser, and a negligence and a cancer phobia2 claim against Hart
Crowser.  Because of summary judgment rulings, by the time of
trial only one of Kinzels defamation claims remained against each
defendant, along with a fear of cancer claim against Hart Crowser
and a wrongful termination claim against Discovery.
          The  jury  rendered  a verdict for both  defendants  on

these claims.

          Kinzel appeals.

DISCUSSION

     Issues on Appeal

          Kinzel  raises numerous issues on appeal.   The  issues

discussed in this opinion are set out below along with a  summary

of our resolution of each.  Other issues

are resolved summarily.  They are listed in the margin along with

a summary reason for our decision concerning each.3

     1.    Did  the trial court err in failing to give  a  mixed-

motive  instruction  on  the retaliatory discharge  claim?   Yes,

because  the  evidence was sufficiently strong  that  Kinzel  was

discharged for reasons that included a prohibited motive.

     2.   Did the trial court err in limiting Kinzel to two weeks

severance pay for his retaliatory discharge claim?  Yes,  because

a retaliatory discharge in violation of an explicit public policy

gives rise to a tort as well as a contract claim.

     3.   Did the trial court err in granting summary judgment to

Hart  Crowser  on  Kinzels  first  defamation  claim?   Yes,  the

challenged  statement  could  reasonably  be  interpreted  as  an

assessment based upon factual underpinnings.

     4.    Did the trial court err in connection with instructing

the  jury  regarding Kinzels defamation claim against  Discovery?

There  is no reversible error on this point.  The error that  was

made  was  harmless and Kinzels argument regarding an instruction

that  should have been given is considered abandoned  because  of

inadequate briefing.

     5.    Did the trial court err in excluding medical testimony

     regarding Kinzels back injury?  No, the trial courts exclusionary

rulings  were  correct when made and the court  properly  allowed

such evidence when its relevance to Kinzels defamation claim  was

argued.

     6.    Did  the  trial  court err in  granting  Hart  Crowser

summary   judgment  on  Kinzels  intentional  interference   with

contract  claim?  Yes, there are genuine issues of material  fact

as to cause and privilege.

          We proceed to a discussion of the above issues.

     1.   Mixed-Motive Instruction

          Kinzel  complained that Discovery wrongfully terminated

him for his role in filing OSH complaints against Hart Crowser or

for  filing  for workers compensation benefits.   At  trial,  the

superior  court  gave  the following jury instruction   regarding

this claim:

               In   considering   Discovery   Drillings
          reasons  for terminating Jeffrey  Kinzel,  if
          you conclude that Discovery Drilling made its
          decision to terminate Jeffrey Kinzel  in  the
          good-faith  belief  that Jeffrey  Kinzel  had
          misrepresented  the  nature  of  the  doctors
          releases hed obtained and a good-faith belief
          that  Jeffrey Kinzel failed to return to work
          at the end of the period for which his doctor
          had released him, you may find that Discovery
          Drilling acted in good faith even if it [was]
          later   discovered  that  the   reasons   for
          terminating Jeffrey Kinzel were mistaken.[4]
          
The special verdict form was worded:

               (16)  Did  Jeffrey Kinzels filing  of  a
          workers    compensation    claim    have    a
          determinative  effect in Discovery  Drillings
          decision-making  process in  terminating  his
          employment?
          
               . . . .
          
               (17)  Did  Jeffrey Kinzels filing  of  a
          complaint  with  AKOSH have  a  determinative
          effect in Discovery Drillings decision-making
          process in terminating his employment?
          
The jury answered no to both of these questions.

          In  Veco,  Inc. v. Rosebrock we laid out the  framework

          for retaliatory discharge claims.5  To establish a prima facie

case of retaliation, a plaintiff must show:

          (1)  that  [the employee] was  engaged  in  a
          protected activity;
          
          (2)  that an adverse employment decision  was
          made; and
          
          (3)   that  there  was  a  causal  connection
          between the two.[6]
          
Quoting  from  Miller v. Fairchild Industries, Inc.,7  we  stated

that  [c]ausation sufficient to establish a prima facie  case  of

unlawful retaliation may be inferred from the proximity  in  time

between  the  protected  action  and  the  allegedly  retaliatory

discharge  . . . .8  Once a prima facie case is established,  the

burden  of  production  shifts to the employer  to  articulate  a

legitimate  nonretaliatory explanation  for  the  discharge.   To

satisfy  this  burden, the employer need only produce  admissible

evidence  which  would  allow the trier  of  fact  rationally  to

conclude  that the employment decision had not been motivated  by

discriminatory  animus. 9  If the employer meets  its  burden  of

production  by  articulating a legitimate reason for  terminating

the  employee, then the burden shifts once again to the plaintiff

to  show  that the defendants proffered explanation is  merely  a

pretext for discrimination.10

          In  this  case  Kinzel  made  a  prima  facie  case  of

retaliation.   He engaged in protected activities when  he  filed

his  OSH  complaint and workers compensation claim,  and  he  was

fired.   The  close proximity in time between these  events  gave

rise   to  an  inference  of  causation.   Discovery  articulated

legitimate,  nondiscriminatory reasons for firing  Kinzel.   Thus

the  burden  shifted back to Kinzel to prove that  these  reasons

were  pretextual.  The focus at trial was the motive  for  firing

Kinzel.   Were  the  reasons  offered  by  Discovery  genuine  or

pretextual?

          Kinzel was not satisfied with the instructions that the

court  eventually  gave and requested a mixed-motive  instruction

          similar to the mixed-motive instruction in Veco.11

          In  Era  Aviation, Inc. v. Lindfors12 we explained  the

nature and function of a mixed-motive instruction:

               In  cases where there is direct evidence
          of   discrimination,  we  instead   apply   a
          mixed-motive analysis, which recognizes  that
          discriminatory employment decisions  may  not
          be   motivated   solely   by   a   prohibited
          characteristic such as race or sex,  but  may
          be  based  on  a  mixture of  legitimate  and
          illegitimate   considerations.    Under   the
          mixed-motive  framework, once  the  plaintiff
          has  cleared the initial hurdle of presenting
          direct evidence of discriminatory intent, the
          plaintiffs  ultimate  burden  of   proof   is
          somewhat  relaxed:   the jury  is  instructed
          that the plaintiff can prevail in a claim  of
          discrimination  by showing  that  gender  was
          simply a motivating factor, as opposed to the
          determinative   factor,   in   the    adverse
          employment decision.  Still, gender must be a
          determinative cause, but the burden shifts to
          the  employer  on this point.   The  employer
          must  show that it would have made  the  same
          decision   even   absent  considerations   of
          gender.   Although the plaintiff  may  pursue
          mixed-motive      and     pretext      claims
          simultaneously, if the jury finds  no  direct
          evidence of discrimination, it must find  the
          defendant liable, if at all, under a  pretext
          framework.[13]
          
          As the above language makes clear, there must be direct

evidence  that the employers conduct was motivated, at  least  in

part,  by  a prohibited reason  in Era gender discrimination,  in

the  present case retaliation because the employee filed  an  OSH

claim or a workers compensation claim.  Kinzel argues that he met

this requirement and Discovery argues that he did not.

          The  term direct evidence in the context of the  mixed-

motive  methodology comes from the decision of the United  States

Supreme Court in Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins.14  Courts subsequent

to  Price Waterhouse have struggled with the meaning of the  term

direct.   The Second Circuit has observed that direct should  not

be understood

          in  its  sense  as antonym of circumstantial,
          for  that  type of direct evidence  as  to  a
          mental state is usually impossible to obtain:
          
               Direct    evidence,    it
               seems,  is an unfortunate
               choice of terminology for
               the  sort of proof needed
               to   establish  a  mixed-
               motives case. Direct  and
               indirect describe not the
               quality  of the  evidence
               presented, but the manner
               in  which  the  plaintiff
               proves his case. Strictly
               speaking, the only direct
               evidence  that a decision
               was  made because  of  an
               impermissible      factor
               would be an admission  by
               the decisionmaker such as
               I  fired  him because  he
               was   too  old.  Even   a
               highly-probative
               statement   like   You're
               fired,   old  man   still
               requires  the  factfinder
               to   draw  the  inference
               that  the plaintiffs  age
               had a causal relationship
               to   the  decision.   But
               juries  have always  been
               allowed   to  draw   such
               inferences.[15]
               
The  Second Circuit takes the position that a plaintiff may prove

that  a  forbidden animus was a motivating factor through  either

direct  or  circumstantial evidence so long as the circumstantial

evidence is sufficiently strong.  Mere statistical evidence would

not warrant a mixed-motive charge, nor would stray remarks in the

workplace  by  persons  who  are not involved  in  the  pertinent

decisionmaking process.16

          The  Second  Circuit court in Ostrowski summarized  its

approach to mixed-motive cases as follows:

               In   sum,   if  the  plaintiff  presents
          evidence of conduct or statements by  persons
          involved  in the decisionmaking process  that
          may  be  viewed  as directly  reflecting  the
          alleged  discriminatory  attitude,  and  that
          evidence   is   sufficient  to   permit   the
          factfinder  to infer that that  attitude  was
               more likely than not a motivating factor in
          the  employers decision, the jury  should  be
          instructed   that  if  it  does   draw   that
          inference   the  plaintiff  is  entitled   to
          recover  unless the employer has  established
          by  a preponderance of the evidence that  the
          employer  would  have taken the  same  action
          without  consideration of  the  impermissible
          factor.   The jury should also be instructed,
          in  substance, that the employer may not meet
          its  burden  in  [a  mixed-motives]  case  by
          merely  showing  that  at  the  time  of  the
          decision it was motivated only in part  by  a
          legitimate  reason.  .  .  .   The   employer
          instead must show that its legitimate reason,
          standing alone, would have induced it to make
          the same decision.[17]
          
          We  agree  with  the Second Circuits  approach  to  the

quantum  of  proof  required in order to justify  a  mixed-motive

instruction.  We align ourselves with these views in  recognition

of the difficulty of proving that an unlawful motive impelled any

particular   employment   decision  and   the   desirability   of

implementing the statutory policy against retaliatory discharges.18

          We  discussed  the sufficiency of the  evidence  for  a

mixed-motive instruction in Era.  In Era we considered whether  a

plaintiff, who complained of gender discrimination, had presented

enough  evidence  to  warrant a mixed-motive instruction.19   The

evidence  presented  in that case involved two  harsh  statements

directed toward the plaintiff in which she was told she had no  .

.  .  business  being a captain and that she  would  never  be  a

captain.20  We noted that these statements could not be construed

to  be  direct evidence that sex was a factor in Eras failure  to

promote  the  plaintiff.21  While the statements  were  certainly

clear  that  the  Era decisionmaker had a strong  view  that  the

employee did not deserve a promotion, they were silent as to  the

reasons  for this view.  Both statements are ambiguous  they  can

be  interpreted  in a discriminatory or benign way   and  do  not

reflect directly on Eras discriminatory animus.22

          Here,  Kinzel argues that unlike the situation in  Era,

the  evidence presented at trial revealed an animus based on  his

          protected activity.  At trial, Kinzel presented two e-mails

written and sent by Brown to Craig Martin.  The first e-mail  was

dated July 25, 1998.  Brown wrote Martin:

          I  understand that you have told Dave to have
          Jeff   Kinzel  removed  from  the  site.    I
          understand.  Please confirm that  request  to
          me  in writing.  It can be by e-mail or  fax.
          If you would include an official reason, that
          would  be  helpful.  I do apologize  for  the
          recent  events, however I was  stuck  in  the
          middle  between you and Jeff.   I  assume  we
          might  take up all that at a later time  when
          the wound is not so fresh.
          
At  trial, Brown was asked to explain what wound he was referring

to in his message.  Brown replied,

          Well, obviously, an OSHA investigation is  an
          unpleasant  arrangement in any  regard.   The
          things that they were looking into, Craig was
          clearly  not  happy about it.  In  a  general
          sense,  I  dont know that anybody  was  happy
          about  having to discontinue what  they  were
          doing   and   respond  to  the  investigators
          requirements.
          
          In  an  e-mail dated August 13, 1998, to Martin,  Brown

wrote:

          Craig, I am sure that neither of us are happy
          about  the way this project ended.  It was  a
          no  win  situation  for  absolutely  everyone
          involved.  . . .  I just wanted to touch base
          after the initial pain had subsided a bit and
          say  that  I clearly tried too long  to  give
          Jeff  [Kinzel]  a  chance  to  get  over  the
          details  and see the big picture. .  .  .   I
          will be paying for a long time for giving him
          a chance.
          
When  Brown was asked at trial about his use of the words initial

pain,  he  acknowledged that he again was referring  to  the  OSH

investigation.  He further testified that he was upset more about

Kinzels report to OSH than he was about the quality of his work.

          Browns  e-mails and corresponding testimony  reveal  an

animus  based  on  Kinzels OSH report.  Brown  characterized  the

actions of Kinzel as creating a wound and a pain in the relations

between  Discovery  and Hart Crowser, and Browns  explanation  at

trial revealed he was upset with Kinzel for these actions:  So  I

guess  what  I  was  upset about was not the work.   These  facts

distinguish this case from Era.  In Era, the plaintiff failed  to

provide  evidence  of animus based on forbidden  motives.   Here,

however, the evidence shows an animus triggered by Kinzels safety

complaints.

          Although the e-mail statements by Brown as explained by

his testimony directly reflect an animus against Kinzel based  on

Kinzels protected conduct, was the evidence sufficient to  permit

a  jury  to infer that that attitude was more likely than  not  a

motivating factor in the employers decision?23  We believe that it

was  sufficient.   The e-mail evidence plainly suggests  that  at

least  one adverse employment decision was made by Brown  because

of  Kinzels  OSH  report:   Kinzels reassignment  from  the  Fort

Wainwright   job  to  the  more  physically  demanding   job   at

Glennallen.  Although this adverse employment action was not  the

one  that was under review by the jury, Kinzel was fired a little

more than a month after he was reassigned.  If an improper motive

played  a  role  in the reassignment, there is little  reason  to

think  that  it would have been dispelled at the time of  Kinzels

firing.24

          We  conclude  therefore that a mixed-motive instruction

should have been given.  But Discovery argues that the failure to

give  such  an instruction was harmless error as the  jury  found

Kinzels  filing  of  a workers compensation claim  and  an  AKOSH

complaint  did  not  have  a determinative  effect  in  Discovery

Drillings  decisionmaking process in terminating his  employment.

Discovery misses the point of a mixed-motive instruction.  If the

jury had been given a mixed-motive instruction, Kinzel would only

have  had  to  show  that  Discoverys  prohibited  motive  was  a

motivating factor, though not necessarily a determinative one, in

the  decision  to fire Kinzel.  If the jury so found  the  burden

would  have shifted to Discovery to show that it would have fired

Kinzel even if he had not initiated safety-related complaints  on

          the Fort Wainwright job.  By contrast, under the instructions as

given,  the  burden was on Kinzel to show that his filing  had  a

determinative effect.25  Since the jurys finding was not guided by

an  appropriate instruction, it does not show that the failure to

give such an instruction was harmless.26

     2.   Limiting Lost Wages to Two Weeks

          The  superior court ruled that since Kinzel was an  at-

will  employee  subject  to termination  upon  two  weeks  notice

without cause, Kinzel was entitled to lost wages for no more than

two  weeks pay.  Kinzel claims that this limitation was erroneous

because his retaliatory discharge action should be considered  an

action  in tort rather than contract.  He argues that it  follows

from  the  tort  nature of his claim that his  lost  wages  claim

should  not be limited to the two-week notice period and  further

that emotional distress damages, loss of consortium damages,  and

punitive  damages were eliminated by the courts ruling  that  his

retaliation claim could only be recognized in contract.

          Discovery  responds that this argument is not  a  basis

for  reversal since it relates only to the measure of damages and

the jury found for Discovery on the liability issues relating  to

the  wrongful  termination  claim.  Discovery  also  argues  that

breaches  of  the  covenant of good faith and fair  dealing  have

consistently been held to be contract actions in Alaska, that the

proper measure of damages in a wrongful termination contract case

is  the  employees  reasonable  expectations,  and  that  Kinzels

reasonable expectations did not extend beyond the two-week notice

of  termination  period to which he was entitled  as  an  at-will

employee.

          In  reply, Kinzel argues that if at-will employees were

limited  to  two  weeks severance pay on claims  for  retaliatory

discharge this would actually encourage employers to fire at-will

employees  who reported to OSH; the consequences to the  employer

would be slight and the incentive to be rid of a gadfly would  be

great.   Kinzel also contends that in virtually every state  that

          has considered the issue, employer retaliation for filing a

safety-related complaint is considered a tort, that  the  measure

of  damages for the tortious discharge of an at-will employee  is

based  on the employees expectation of continued employment,  and

relevant  to this is the employees past history with the company.

He  notes  that he had worked for Discovery for nearly six  years

and thus his expectation of continued employment could not fairly

be limited to two weeks.

          Discovery is correct that this issue is not grounds for

reversal.  It relates to damages only, and the jury returned a no-

liability  verdict.  But since the verdict must  be  reversed  on

other  grounds,  we believe that it is advisable to  address  the

issue briefly for guidance upon retrial.

          In  Reed  v.  Municipality  of  Anchorage  an  employee

alleged  that he had been fired in retaliation for filing  a  job

safety  complaint.27  We held that the whistleblower statute,  AS

18.60.089,  does not confer a private cause of action,  but  that

the  employee  had  a  common  law  remedy  for  his  retaliatory

discharge   claim.28   He  alleged  that  his   termination   for

whistleblowing was a violation of the covenant of good faith  and

fair  dealing  that  is  implied in employment  contracts.29   We

agreed.   In so ruling we did not imply that the employees  claim

was  not also a tort claim.  The employee apparently only  sought

recognition  of  his  claim  as one  sounding  in  contract.   In

reaching our conclusion that AS 18.60.089 did not preclude a suit

for  retaliatory  discharge  we noted  that  our  conclusion  was

similar to the conclusion reached by the New Jersey Supreme Court

in  Cerracchio  v.  Alden Leeds, Inc.,30 which permitted  a  tort

action to recover damages based upon [the employees] discharge in

violation of the public policy of this state . . . .31

          In  ARCO  Alaska, Inc. v. Akers the issue  was  whether

this state will permit tort recovery when the implied covenant of

good faith and fair dealing is breached in an employment contract

and the breach violates no explicit public policy.32  We answered

          this question in the negative.  But we specifically stated that

we  were  not  deciding whether a tort claim could be  maintained

where a discharge violated an explicit public policy.33

          In   Central  Bering  Sea  Fishermen's  Association  v.

Anderson  an  employee with a one-year contract brought  a  claim

for,  among other theories, constructive retaliatory discharge.34

We  did not indicate whether we considered this claim to sound in

tort or contract.  We held that damages should be limited to  the

unexpired  term of the contract, citing the normal  rule  that  a

wrongfully discharged employee is entitled to the total amount of

the agreed upon salary for the unexpired term of his employment.35

We  recognized that cases may exist where the specific term of an

employment contract should not limit lost earnings damages.36  But

we  held that the employees claim in Anderson was not such a case

because  the  employee  was to occupy a new  position  in  a  new

company created by a new government program, allocating shares in

a volatile industry.37

          In  the  present  case violations  of  explicit  public

policies  protection of whistleblowers who file safety complaints

or  workers  who file workers compensation claims  are alleged.38

In these circumstances we believe that it is appropriate to allow

a  tort remedy to more effectively deter prohibited conduct.   We

thus  join  the numerous authorities that have so  ruled.39   The

parties  have  only  touched on what the appropriate  measure  of

damages for lost wages would be for the tortious discharge  of  a

whistleblower.  We decline to attempt a definitive ruling on this

subject  based  on the briefing before us.  Instead,  this  is  a

subject that should be addressed on remand.

     3.   First Defamation Claim Against Hart Crowser

          Kinzel  brought defamation claims against Hart  Crowser

based  on two different statements made by Craig Martin.  One  of

the  claims  was dismissed on summary judgment, while  the  other

claim was tried and the jury found in favor of Hart Crowser.   We

discuss here the summary judgment decision as to the first claim.

          We review grants of summary judgment de novo and in the

light most favorable to the non-moving party.40  Summary judgment

is  upheld if the evidence presents no genuine issue of  material

fact and the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter  of

law.41   The  party opposing summary judgment need not  establish

that  it  will ultimately prevail at trial, but only  that  there

exists a genuine issue of fact to be litigated.42

          Kinzel  claims  as error the superior courts  grant  of

summary  judgment  for Hart Crowser on Kinzels  first  defamation

claim.   Kinzel asserts that Hart Crowsers Martin made defamatory

statements  about Kinzel in an e-mail to Kyle Brown.  The  e-mail

read:

          In  light of the issues that we have  had  to
          deal   with   during   the   8   Car   Header
          installation, I think that it would be better
          if  you  didnt  have Jeff up here.   The  air
          sparge  line issue (not installing the  black
          iron  pipe)  was apparently done  during  the
          last  few days that he was here and I  wonder
          if  it  was  deliberate.  Like to  hear  your
          thoughts on the subject.  (Emphasis added.)
          
          In  ruling, the superior court did not give reasons for

granting  Hart  Crowsers  motion for  summary  judgment.   Kinzel

speculates  that the basis of the ruling was that  the  statement

was  protected  opinion speech, and argues  that  a  fact-opinion

dichotomy is misguided.  Hart Crowser argues that there  are  two

legitimate bases upon which the court could have ruled:  (1)  the

statement  was  incapable  of being  proven  false,  or  (2)  the

statement was privileged.

          Kinzel  argues  that a statement is  defamatory  if  it

implies  underlying factual knowledge, even if  it  is  allegedly

expressed  as an opinion.  Kinzel thus anticipates Hart  Crowsers

defense  that expressions of opinion are always protected speech.

In  dealing with the fact/opinion distinction, we are  guided  by

the  United  States Supreme Court in Milkovich v. Lorain  Journal

Co.43 and our own opinion in Sands v. Living Word Fellowship.44

          In  Milkovich,  the  United States  Supreme  Court  was

          concerned with a common misinterpretation of dicta in one of its

earlier cases, Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc.45  Some courts asserted

that  Gertz  stood for the proposition that opinion could   never

qualify as defamation.46  But as Milkovich explained:

          we  do not think this passage from Gertz  was
          intended  to  create  a wholesale  defamation
          exemption for anything that might be  labeled
          opinion.     Not   only   would    such    an
          interpretation be contrary to the  tenor  and
          context  of  the passage, but it  would  also
          ignore  the fact that expressions of  opinion
          may  often  imply an assertion  of  objective
          fact.[47]
          
          In  Sands  we  acknowledged  Milkovich  and  Gertz  and

determined that the real distinction is not between opinions  and

facts, but between statements represented as expressions of ideas

and statements purporting to represent facts:

          The   First   Amendment  bars   actions   for
          defamation  where  the  allegedly  defamatory
          statements  are  expressions  of  ideas   and
          cannot  reasonably be interpreted as  stating
          actual  facts about an individual. Milkovich,
          497  U.S. at 20; see Gertz, 418 U.S. at  339.
          If  the  context demonstrates to the audience
          that  the speaker is not purporting to  state
          or imply actual, known facts, then the speech
          is protected by the First Amendment.[48]
          
This interpretation is supported by the Restatement of Torts49 and

Keeton.50

          The Seventh Circuit has stated, if it is plain that the

speaker  is  expressing a subjective view, an  interpretation,  a

theory,  conjecture, or surmise, rather than claiming  to  be  in

possession of objectively verifiable facts, the statement is  not

actionable.51  The First Circuit has further explained that  some

statements  are protected opinion speech not because  [they  are]

vague or judgmental but because [they are] speculative:

          The  test,  admittedly a very crude  one,  is
          whether  the statement is properly understood
          as   purely  speculation  or,  alternatively,
          implies  that  the  speaker  or  writer   has
          concrete  facts that confirm or underpin  the
          truth  of  the speculation. Levin v.  McPhee,
          119 F.3d 189, 197 (2d Cir. 1997); Restatement
          (Second) of Torts  566, comment (c)  at  173.
          The  former  is  protected  as  opinion;  the
          latter  is taken as an indirect assertion  of
          truth.[52]
          
          In  Lyons  v. Globe Newspaper Co. the Supreme  Judicial

Court  of Massachusetts considered whether a newspaper report  on

picketing  outside a political convention defamed  the  picketers

union  when  it  recounted a suspicion that  the  picketers  were

attempting  to  disrupt the convention in order to subvert  rules

which  threatened the candidacy of a politician they supported.53

The court detailed its process in distinguishing between fact and

opinion:

          The  court must examine the statement in  its
          totality  in  the  context in  which  it  was
          uttered   or   published.   The  court   must
          consider  all  the words used, not  merely  a
          particular  phrase or sentence. In  addition,
          the  court  must  give weight  to  cautionary
          terms  used  by  the  person  publishing  the
          statement.  Finally, the court must  consider
          all  of  the  circumstances  surrounding  the
          statement, including the medium by which  the
          statement is disseminated and the audience to
          which it is published.[54]
          
The  court  concluded that the article was not defamatory.55   It

found  that the word suspicion . . . plainly cautioned the reader

that the article referred to a theory rather than to facts.56  It

also  noted  that the suspicion was but one of three  alternative

explanations  for the picketers motives, thereby confirming  that

the writer was engaging in speculation.57

          Here,   Martins   language  could  be  interpreted   as

signaling  that he was simply theorizing when he said  I  wonder.

He  also  revealed that he did not consider his  theory  anything

more  than a suspicion when he queried Brown for his own thoughts

on  the  subject.  In its totality, Martins e-mail can reasonably

be  construed  as  nothing  more  than  conjecture.   Under  this

interpretation, Martins language would not be read as a statement

of  fact and did not imply that Martin had actual facts that form

the  basis  for the conjecture.  For these reasons the  statement

          could reasonably be determined as not defamatory.

          On  the  other  hand, in reviewing a  summary  judgment

ruling  we  view  the  record  in  its  entirety,  and  draw  all

reasonable  inferences  in favor of the non-moving  party.58   An

alternative and also reasonable interpretation would be  to  view

Martins June 24 e-mail as insinuating that Kinzel was responsible

for sabotaging the worksite.  Given Martins supervisory position,

he  was  in  a  better position than Brown to  know  the  factual

details of the Car Header installation and air sparge line issue.

For this reason, Martins wonder could reasonably be understood as

having   a   factual  underpinning  and  thus  make  the   e-mail

susceptible to a defamation claim.

          Since one might reasonably interpret the facts here  in

favor  of  Kinzels  defamation claim, we must conclude  that  the

superior  court  erred  in dismissing Kinzels  claim  on  summary

judgment  and  remand  the case for further proceedings  on  this

issue.

     4.   Defamation Claim Against Discovery

          Kinzel sued Discovery for defamation arising out of  an

e-mail Kyle Brown wrote to Craig Martin on December 16, 1998:

          Just  for  your  information,  Jeff  [Kinzel]
          filed  a bogus work comp claim (alleged  back
          injury on a different site) a few days  after
          he  left  Fbx  and  has not worked  a  minute
          since.
          
At  trial,  the jury found in favor of Discovery on  this  claim.

The jury could not agree whether the bogus statement was true  or

false,59 but decided that Brown did not know, nor should he  have

reasonably  known, that the statement was false.  Kinzel  appeals

claiming  that his expert witnesses were improperly excluded  and

the jury was erroneously instructed.

          We  conclude that no error was committed concerning the

exclusion  of  expert  witnesses because Kinzel  was  allowed  to

present  expert testimony that his claim was genuine rather  than

bogus.   This  reason  is examined in more  detail  in  the  next

section.   In this section we deal with Kinzels claim  concerning

          the jury instructions.

          Kinzel  leads off by claiming that the jury should  not

have  been  instructed at all as to whether his claim was  bogus.

Instead,  he  claims that he was entitled to a  directed  verdict

that his claim was not bogus.

          Discovery does not counter this argument other than  to

say  that  it  is  too cursory and therefore has been  abandoned.

Kinzels  argument  on this point is cursory.  But  he  makes  the

essential  point  in  his opening brief that  Discovery  did  not

contradict  the  validity of his claim, and this  appears  to  be

true.

          Although  Kinzel may have been entitled to  a  directed

verdict instructing the jury that Browns statement that his claim

was  bogus was false, the error was harmless.  The jurys  finding

that  Brown  did  not  act negligently in  making  the  statement

renders  the error concerning failing to direct a verdict  as  to

the  falsity  of  the statement irrelevant.  Fault  amounting  at

least  to  negligence  is an essential element  of  a  defamation

claim.60   Since it was found not to exist, the claim necessarily

fails.

          Kinzel  also  claims  that an instruction  on  duty  to

investigate  was requested but refused.  He claims  that  without

such  investigation  Brown  could  not  be  said  to  have  acted

reasonably.  Since a person who makes an unprivileged  defamatory

statement  that is false is liable unless he reasonably  believes

it  to be true, an instruction explaining that such a person  has

an  obligation to use due care to ascertain the truth or  falsity

of  his  statement  might  have been  appropriate.   But  Kinzels

briefing  on  this point is inadequate.  He has not  demonstrated

that the instruction he offered is a correct statement of the law

or  that  the  instructions given by the court were erroneous  or

incomplete.61

     5.   Exclusion of Medical Testimony Regarding the Nature  of
          Kinzels Back Injuries
          
          Kinzel   argues  that  the  court  erred  by  excluding

          evidence as to the nature of his work-related back injury.  He

claims  that  this evidence was relevant to show the  falsity  of

Browns  defamatory statement that his workers compensation  claim

was  bogus.   Further he contends that the evidence  should  have

been  admitted to rebut evidence that his injury was  feigned  in

order to develop claims against Discovery and Hart Crowser.

          But  the  sequence of events at the trial convinces  us

that  the  court  did  not  err.  The  court  initially  excluded

detailed evidence of Kinzels back injury based on the courts view

that  he  could  not recover in the present case for  the  injury

because   of   the  exclusive  remedy  clause  of   the   workers

compensation act.  The evidence was offered initially  by  Kinzel

only  on  the question of damages, and the court did not  err  in

excluding it on relevancy grounds based on this offer.  Later  in

the  trial Kinzel argued that the evidence was important  to  his

defamation  claim  to show that the falsity of  Browns  statement

that  his  workers  compensation claim  was  bogus.   After  much

argument  the  trial court correctly ruled that the testimony  of

Dr.  Howard  as  to  the  nature of  Kinzels  injuries  would  be

admitted.  Dr. Howard testified that in his opinion Kinzel had  a

valid workers compensation claim.  Dr. Howard also testified that

if  Brown  had  consulted with a physician as to whether  Kinzels

claim was valid or bogus, a reasonable physician would have  said

that  it  was  a valid claim.  Kinzel did not seek  to  introduce

additional evidence as to his injury after this testimony.

          Subsequent  to  Dr.  Howards testimony,  evidence  that

Kinzel  had  been  planning  a  lawsuit  was  presented  by   the

defendants.   Once the evidence was presented Kinzel  could  have

moved to introduce evidence of the nature and seriousness of  his

back injury in order to rebut the defense position that his was a

trumped-up  claim.  But he appears not to have done this.   Under

the  circumstances, we can identify no ruling by the trial  court

that was erroneous.

     6.   Interference with Contract Claim Against  Hart Crowser

          Discovery removed Kinzel from the Fort Wainwright  site

at  the specific request of Hart Crowsers Martin.  Discovery then

reassigned Kinzel an arduous job,  which he claims was  meant  to

be  punitive  and  was an effort to force him  to  resign.   Soon

thereafter  he  injured  his  back  and  left  work.   In   early

September, Kinzel was fired by Discovery.

          In  his  complaint,  Kinzel alleged  that  Martin  made

false,  defamatory,  and otherwise harmful statements  to  Brown,

thereby  inveigl[ing],  encourag[ing] and extort[ing]  plaintiffs

employer  to  get rid of and discharge plaintiff.   This,  Kinzel

asserted, amounted to an improper interference with his Discovery

employment contract by Hart Crowser.

          Hart  Crowser moved for summary judgment on this issue,

arguing that Kinzel had been terminated by his employer Discovery

for  reasons wholly unrelated to the Hart Crowser project at Fort

Wainwright.  Attached to this motion was a sworn  affidavit  from

Brown.  Brown attested that:

               I   was   solely  responsible  for   the
          decision   to  assign  Mr.  Kinzel   to   the
          Glennallen work site. . . .  Hart Crowser had
          no input in my decision . . . .  Furthermore,
          my  decision  to  assign Mr.  Kinzel  to  the
          Glennallen  job  as  opposed  to  some  other
          project  was  in  no way influenced  by  Hart
          Crowsers  request that Mr. Kinzel be  removed
          from the Ft. Wainwright job.
          
Brown  further insisted that Kinzel would have been removed  from

the  Wainwright  site within a week anyway  since  that  job  was

nearing completion.  He concluded, [a]fter Mr. Kinzel was removed

from  the  Ft. Wainwright project Hart Crowser had no involvement

in any aspect of Mr. Kinzels employment.

          In  his opposition motion, Kinzel attempted to link his

efforts  to improve safety at the Fort Wainwright site  with  his

eventual   termination.    He  accused   Martin   of    seriously

undermining Kinzels position at Discovery by means of a series of

damaging  and  at times defamatory e-mails.  This,  according  to

Kinzel,  led to his removal from Fort Wainwright and his eventual

termination.

            Prior  to  trial  the  superior  court  granted  Hart

Crowsers   motion  for  summary  judgment  on  this   intentional

interference with contract claim.  The court gave no reasons  for

its  decision.   Kinzel claims that there are material  facts  in

dispute as to whether Hart Crowser interfered with his employment

at Discovery.

          To prevail on an intentional interference with contract

claim,  a plaintiff must prove:  (1) the existence of a contract;

(2) the defendant was aware of the contract; (3) the contract was

breached;  (4)  the  defendants conduct was  the  cause  of  that

breach;  (5) the damages; and (6) the defendants conduct was  not

privileged.62

          We have recognized that this tort applies to terminable

at-will contracts:

          though  a contract is terminable at  will,  a
          claim of unjustifiable interference can still
          be made, for (t)he wrong for which the courts
          may    give   redress   includes   also   the
          procurement of the termination of a  contract
          which  otherwise would have (been)  continued
          in effect.[63]
          
          Hart  Crowser points out that many of Kinzels arguments

are inappropriate because they refer to trial testimony.  In this

discussion we only consider facts available to the trial court at

the  time of its ruling,64 but we also note that the trial  court

had  a  duty  to  examine  the  existing  record  (including  the

aforementioned  e-mails) in its entirety before determining  that

no genuine issue of material fact existed.65

          Hart  Crowser claims that Kinzel presented no  evidence

in  his  opposition to Hart Crowsers motion for summary  judgment

demonstrating  that  Hart Crowser, and specifically  Martin,  had

induced  Discovery to terminate Kinzel.  It further  claims  that

the  only  relevant evidence presented to the superior court  was

the affidavit of Brown, confirming that Kinzel was terminated for

reasons  particular  to  Discovery and wholly  unrelated  to  the

          project at Fort Wainwright and Hart Crowser.  But the e-mails

between  Martin and Brown, when viewed in a light most  favorable

to Kinzel,66 show that Martin was responsible for Kinzels firing.

          In  a  June 24 e-mail Martin comments to Brown that  it

would  be  better  if you didnt have Jeff up  here.   He  further

insinuates  that  Kinzel  was  responsible  for  sabotaging   the

worksite.   Martins subsequent e-mails demonstrate a  pattern  of

attempts at undermining Kinzels desirability as an employee:

          I  think it is very unwise to have these guys
          complaining to everyone they meet  about  the
          unsafe  work  conditions  that  Hart  Crowser
          forces  them to work under . . . one  of  our
          clients [might not find it humorous].
          
          We  will give Jeff (or whoever is up here) [a
          group of tasks to accomplish].
          
          TOP  THREE WHINES OF THE WEEK [all mentioning
          Jeff Kinzel].
          
          I  have grave concerns about Jeff doing  good
          work at a reasonable productive level at this
          point.
          
          Brown  eventually  recalled Kinzel  from  the  worksite

after  Martin  asked that Kinzel be removed.  When  Martin  asked

Brown to remove Kinzel from the site, Brown asked for an official

reason, stating that it would be helpful.  Martins reply did  not

mention  Kinzels  lack of productivity, or whining  about  health

hazards, or any other past complaint.  Rather than these  themes,

Martin  accused  Kinzel  of not wearing a  respirator.   Further,

since  respirators  were no longer required by  the  time  Martin

responded, he also referred to other Health & Safety concerns  in

regards  to  Jeff.  Despite not specifying what  these  were,  he

stated  that he would have no choice but to shut down the job  if

Kinzel  were not removed:  My only other option will be  to  shut

the  project  down,  if  we cannot ensure  safety  at  the  site.

Removing Jeff from the site is your decision.  Given the lack  of

any  specified  present safety concerns and  Martins  history  of

finding  fault  with Kinzel, the totality of the  evidence  casts

doubt on the veracity of the official reason.

          Hart  Crowser  nevertheless insists that  causation  is

impossible to prove in this case.  It argues that, though a lapse

in  time  between interference and termination is  not  fatal  to

these  claims, what is fatal is when intervening events  make  it

highly  unlikely that  defendants conduct could have  caused  the

termination.   Hart  Crowser  claims  that  there  were   several

intervening occurrences prior to Kinzels termination all of which

demonstrate  a  separate cause of termination,  such  as  Kinzels

injury and his failure to return to work.

          But  the e-mails demonstrate that the safety complaints

put  a  strain  on  the  relationship between  Hart  Crowser  and

Discovery.    Brown,   anxious  to  maintain  business,   quickly

expressed  a  desire to patch things up as soon as possible.   As

early  as  July,  just  after  Kinzel  was  recalled  from   Fort

Wainwright,  Brown e-mailed Martin, I assume we might take up all

that  at a later time when the wound is not so fresh.  On  August

13  Brown further urges, I would hope that its not something that

you  hold  against  me forever.  This tends  to  show  that  Hart

Crowser  still  had  an  influence over Discovery  after  Kinzels

removal  from  the  Fort Wainwright job but before  his  eventual

termination in September.  In subsequent e-mails of December  16,

1998, and March 23, 1999, Brown was still making amends to Martin

for Kinzels complaints.  Although the e-mails do not conclusively

prove  that  Discoverys  termination of  Kinzel  was  based  upon

Martins complaints to Brown, they clearly  raise a genuine  issue

of material fact on that point.

          It  is  also  a question of fact whether Hart  Crowsers

actions  against  Kinzel were privileged.   [W]here  there  is  a

direct  financial interest in a contract, the essential  question

in  determining  if  interference is  justified  is  whether  the

person's conduct is motivated by a desire to protect his economic

interest,  or whether it is motivated by spite, malice,  or  some

other improper objective.67  Here there is no question that  Hart

Crowser  as  contractor had a direct financial  interest  in  the

          relationship between its subcontractor Discovery and Kinzel, so

long as Kinzel was employed on the Fort Wainwright project.   But

the  question  remains whether Martins e-mails were  intended  to

achieve  an  improper  objective such as  removal  of  Kinzel  in

retaliation  for Kinzels safety complaints.  If so, no  claim  of

privilege could be maintained.

          In conclusion, because material facts are in dispute as

to  causation and privilege, the superior courts grant of summary

judgment cannot be sustained.

CONCLUSION

          Kinzel  was  entitled to a mixed-motive instruction  on

his  claim for retaliatory discharge against Discovery.   Summary

judgment  was  improperly granted in favor  of  Hart  Crowser  on

Kinzels  claims for defamation and intentional interference  with

contract  rights.  The judgments in favor of Discovery  and  Hart

Crowser  must  therefore be reversed.  This case is remanded  for

further  proceedings  concerning Kinzels  claims  of  retaliatory

discharge,  defamation  (against Hart Crowser),  and  intentional

interference with contract rights.

          REVERSED and REMANDED.

          In the Supreme Court of the State of Alaska



Jeffrey Kinzel and Cheryl Kinzel,              )
                                ) Supreme Court No. S-10190
                                   Appellants, )
                   v.           )            Order
                                )   Petition for Rehearing
Discovery Drilling, Inc., et al.,              )
                                )
                                    Appellees.  )        Date  of
Order: 06/25/04
                                )
Trial Court Case # 3AN-99-10959CI

     Before:   Fabe,  Chief Justice, Matthews, Eastaugh,  Bryner,
               and Carpeneti, Justices.

     On  consideration  of the Petition for  Rehearing  filed  on
4/26/04,

     It is Ordered:

     1.   The  Petition for Rehearing is Granted in Part. Changes
          are  made  to pages 7 and 29 of opinion 5796,  but  the
          result is unchanged.

     2.   Opinion No. 5796, issued on 4/16/04, is Withdrawn.

     3.   Opinion  No. 5820 is issued on this date in its  place,
          reflecting the changes.

     4.    The  Petition  for Rehearing is Denied  on  all  other
points.

     Entered by direction of the court.

                                   Clerk of the Appellate Courts


                                   
                                   Marilyn May
cc:  Supreme Court Justices
     Judge Michalski
     Trial Court Appeals Clerk
     West Publishing
     Other Publishers

Distribution:

     Marion Kelly
     Wade, Kelly & Sullivan
     733 West 4th Avenue, Suite 200
     Anchorage AK 99501

     Bernard P. Kelly
     Bernard P. Kelly & Assoc
     1007 W 3rd Ave Ste 204
     Anchorage AK 99501

     Paul S Wilcox
     Hughes Thorsness
     550 West Seventh Avenue   #1100
     Anchorage AK 99501

     Harland H McElhany
     Eide, Miller & Pate, PC
     425 G Street, Suite 930
     Anchorage AK 99501

     Phillip J Eide
     Eide, Miller & Pate,  PC
     425  G  Street   #930
     Anchorage AK 99501

     Mary L. Pate
     Eide & Miller
     425 G Street, Suite 930
     Anchorage AK 99501
_______________________________
     1     The  actual date of the letter is unknown.  The letter
is dated August 17, 1998, but it refers to events in September.

     2    l court err in determining that Kinzel could not recover
damages for his back injury in tort against Discovery?  No, r

     3    The following issues are resolved summarily:

     1.    Did  the  trial court err in determining  that  Kinzel
could  not  recover damages for his back injury in  tort  against
Discovery?  No, recovery of damages for physical injury is barred
by  the  exclusive  remedy provision of the Workers  Compensation
Act,  AS  23.30.055, except for statutory claims  or  intentional
torts.

     2.    Did the trial court err in excluding the testimony  of
employee  relations expert Jan Duffy?  No, the courts ruling  was
discretionary and no abuse of discretion has been demonstrated.

     3.    Did the trial court err in excluding the testimony  of
worksite safety expert Dennis Smythe?  No, the courts ruling  was
discretionary and no abuse of discretion has been demonstrated.

     4.   Was Kinzel substantially prejudiced during the trial by
various  interjections  made by the  court  during  his  counsels
examination  of  witnesses  and by imposing  time  restraints  on
counsel?  No, the actions complained of were permissible  efforts
to  bring the trial to a conclusion within a reasonable time  and
were neither unfair nor prejudicial.

     5.    Did the trial court err in instructing the jury as  to
the  defamation claim against Hart Crowser?  As the  instructions
in  question  were not objected to and they are not plain  error,
this argument has been waived.

     6.    Did  the trial court err in granting summary  judgment
dismissing  Kinzels  constructive discharge claim?   No,  because
Kinzel did not resign, he was fired.

     4    This instruction was based on an explanation in Holland
v.  Union  Oil  Co.  of California, Inc., 993 P.2d  1026  (Alaska
1999).

     5    970 P.2d 906 (Alaska 1999).

     6    Id. at 921.

     7    797 F.2d 727, 730-31 (9th Cir. 1986).

     8    Veco, 970 P.2d at 919.

     9    Id.

     10    Id.

     11    Id. at 919 n.29.  The mixed-motive instruction offered
by Kinzel provided in relevant part:
               To  prevail  on his mixed-motive  claim,
          Kinzel need not establish that his complaints
          constituted the sole motivation or  even  the
          primary  motivation  for Discovery  Drillings
          action.  Plaintiff must prove that it is more
          likely  than not that his complaints  were  a
          causal factor in his termination, even though
          Discovery   Drilling  may  also   have   been
          motivated by other factors.
          
               If  you find that Kinzel has proved that
          his    OSHA    complaint    and/or    workers
          compensation   claim   was/were    motivating
          factor(s) in his termination, then  you  must
          find  for Kinzel on his mixed motive wrongful
          termination claim, unless you also find  that
          Discovery Drilling has proved that it is more
          likely  than not that it would have made  the
          same  decision, if Kinzel had not  complained
          to  OSHA  or  filed  a  workers  compensation
          claim.   If you find that Discovery  Drilling
          would  have made the same employment decision
          if  Kinzel  had not made his complaint,  then
          you  must find for Discovery Drilling on  the
          mixed motive wrongful termination claim.
          
               The  fact  that Kinzel was  an  at  will
          employee  who  could  be  terminated  without
          cause  does not mean that Discovery  Drilling
          could  terminate Kinzel because he complained
          to  OSHA  or  filed  a  workers  compensation
          claim.
          
     12    17 P.3d 40 (Alaska 2000).

     13    Id. at 44 (citations omitted).

     14    490 U.S. 228 (1989).

     15    Ostrowski v. Atlantic Mut. Ins. Cos., 968 F.2d 171, 181
(2d Cir. 1992) (quoting  Tyler v. Bethlehem Steel Corp., 958 F.2d
1176, 1185 (2d Cir. 1992)).

     16    Id. at 182.

     17     Id. at 182-83 (quoting Price Waterhouse, 490 U.S.  at
252).

     18     See  AS 18.60.089(a) (prohibiting retaliation  by  an
employer against an employee who has filed as OSH complaint);  AS
23.30.247(a) (prohibiting discriminating against an employee  who
has filed a claim for workers compensation).

     19    Era, 17 P.3d at 44.

     20    Id. at 45.

     21    Id.

     22    Id.

     23    Ostrowski, 968 F.2d at 182.

     24     See Radabaugh v. Zip Feed Mills, Inc., 997 F.2d  444,
449 (8th Cir. 1993).  The Radabaugh opinion in discussing EEOC v.
Alton Packaging Corp., 901 F.2d 920 (11th Cir. 1990), noted:

          The  court  rejected  the employers  argument
          that it was significant that [a comment by  a
          decisionmaker that he would not hire  blacks]
          referred  to  hiring  rather  than  promoting
          blacks,    reasoning   that   the   statement
          indicated   a  decidedly  negative   attitude
          toward black people on the part of one of the
          people  responsible for promotions  and  that
          there  was  no  reason to  think  that  [this
          attitude differed] from hiring to promotion.
          
997 F.2d at 449.

     25    Instruction 25 as given by the superior court.

     26     We agree with Discovery that there was not sufficient
evidence  to  justify  a  mixed-motive  instruction  relating  to
Kinzels filing of a workers compensation claim.

     27    782 P.2d 1155 (Alaska 1989).

     28    Id. at 1159.

     29    Id. at 1158.

     30    538 A.2d 1292 (1988).

     31    Reed, 782 P.2d at 1159.

     32    753 P.2d 1150, 1153 (Alaska 1988).

     33    Id.

     34    54 P.3d 271 (Alaska 2002).

     35    Id. at 278 (quoting Skagway City Sch. Bd. v. Davis, 543
P.2d 218, 225 (Alaska 1975)).

     36     Id.  As support for this proposition we cited a  case
where  lost  earnings under a specified-term  contract  were  not
limited to the term where there had been a long series of similar
contracts.  Id. at n.21 (citing Allen v. Cornish & Carey, 1997 WL
195433, at *6-*7 (N.D. Cal., Apr.11, 1997)).

     37    Id. at 279.

     38     See  AS  18.60.089(a),  which  prohibits  retribution
against discharging or discriminating against an employee because
the  employee  has filed a safety complaint, and AS 23.30.247(a),
prohibiting retaliation for filing a workers compensation claim.

     39     Many  states  have held that the  termination  of  an
employee  in  violation of fundamental public  policy  principles
gives rise to a tort remedy.  See, e.g., Fielder v. Southco, Inc.
of  South Carolina, 699 F. Supp. 577, 578 (W.D. Va. 1988) (public
policy  doctrine  enforced  in claim for  wrongful  discharge  in
retaliation  for  filing sexual harassment claim);  Cabesuela  v.
Browning-Ferris Indus. of Calif., Inc., 80 Cal. Rptr. 2d  60,  63
(Cal.  App.  1998)  (tort remedy available to  employee  who  was
terminated for protesting unsafe working conditions);  Hobson  v.
McLean Hosp. Corp., 522 N.E.2d 975, 977 (Mass. 1988) (tort  claim
available to employee who was discharged for enforcing state  and
municipal safety laws); Cerracchio v. Alden Leeds, Inc., 538 A.2d
1292  (N.J. Super. 1988) (tort remedy available for employee  who
was  terminated for filing OSHA and workers compensation claims);
Nees v. Hocks, 536 P.2d 512 (Or. 1975) (tort claim recognized for
employee who was allegedly discharged for serving on jury  duty).
For  a  more  thorough  analysis on the jurisdictions  that  have
adopted the public policy exception, and particularly those  that
have  utilized  the exception in the whistleblower  context,  see
Daniel   P.  Westman,  Whistleblowing:  The  Law  of  Retaliatory
Discharge 198-211 (App. D) (1991).

     40    Beilgard v. State, 896 P.2d 230, 233 (Alaska 1995); see
also Ellis v. City of Valdez, 686 P.2d 700, 702 (Alaska 1984).

     41    Ellis, 686 P.2d at 702; Alaska R. Civ. P. 56(c).

     42     Alaska Rent-A-Car, Inc. v. Ford Motor Co.,  526  P.2d
1136, 1138 (Alaska 1974).

     43    497 U.S. 1 (1990).

     44    34 P.3d 955 (Alaska 2001).

     45    418 U.S. 323, 339-340 (1974).  The passage in question
reads:

          Under  the First Amendment there is  no  such
          thing as a false idea.  However pernicious an
          opinion   may   seem,  we  depend   for   its
          correction  not on the conscience  of  judges
          and  juries but on the competition  of  other
          ideas.  But there is no constitutional  value
          in false statements of fact.
          
     46     Milkovich, 497 U.S. at 18 (citing Cianci v. New Times
Publg Co., 639 F.2d 54, 61 (2d Cir. 1980)).

     47    Id. (citing Cianci, 639 F.2d at 62 n.10).

     48    Sands, 34 P.3d at 960.

     49    See Restatement (Second) of Torts  566 (1977).

     50     W. Page Keeton, et al., Prosser and Keeton on the Law
of  Torts  113A, at 814-15 (5th ed. 1984).  Keeton argues that  a
distinction should be made between an evaluative-type opinion and
the  deductive type, the latter actually imputing facts that  can
be proven false and thus potentially actionable.  Id.

     51    Haynes v. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 8 F.3d 1222, 1227 (7th
Cir.1993).

     52     Gray  v. St. Martin's Press, Inc., 221 F.3d 243,  250
(1st Cir. 2000).

     53    612 N.E.2d 1158, 1160 (Mass. 1993).

     54    Id. at 1162 (citations omitted).

     55    Id.

     56    Id.

     57    Id.

     58     See American Restaurant Group v. Clark, 889 P.2d 595,
597-98  (Alaska  1995); Bennett v. Hedglin,  995  P.2d  668,  671
(Alaska 2000).

     59     The  jury wrote opposite the question whether  Browns
statement as to the bogus claim was false:  (4-8) no- answer.

     60     French v. Jadon, Inc., 911 P.2d 20, 32 (Alaska  1996)
(To  prevail on a defamation claim, a plaintiff has to  establish
(1)  a  false  and  defamatory  statement;  (2)  an  unprivileged
publication  to a third party; (3) fault amounting  at  least  to
negligence on the part of the publisher; and (4) the existence of
either per se actionability or special harm.).

     61    See Great Divide Ins. Co. v. Carpenter ex rel. Reed, 79
P.3d  599,  608 n.10 (Alaska 2003) (Points that are  inadequately
briefed   are   considered  waived.);  and   State   v.   O'Neill
Investigations,  Inc., 609 P.2d 520, 528 (When, in  the  argument
portion  of  a brief, a major point has been given no  more  than
cursory  statement, we will not consider it further.  Failure  to
argue a point constitutes an abandonment of it.).

     62     See  Briggs  v. Newton, 984 P.2d 1113,  1119  (Alaska
1999).

     63     Alyeska Pipeline Serv. Co. v. Aurora Air Serv., Inc.,
604  P.2d  1090, 1093 (Alaska 1979) (quoting Smith v. Ford  Motor
Co., 221 S.E.2d 282, 290-91 (N.C. 1976)).

     64    See Kaiser v. Sakata, 40 P.3d 800, 805 (Alaska 2002).

     65    American Restaurant Group v. Clark, 889 P.2d 595, 597-
98 (Alaska 1995).

     66     Ellis  v.  City of Valdez, 686 P.2d 700, 702  (Alaska
1984);  see  also  Beilgard v. State, 896 P.2d 230,  233  (Alaska
1995).

     67    RAN Corp. v. Hudesman, 823 P.2d 646, 649 (Alaska 1991).