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You can search the entire site. or go to the recent opinions, or the chronological or subject indices. Koller v. Reft (6/13/2003) sp-5699

Koller v. Reft (6/13/2003) sp-5699

     Notice:   This opinion is subject to correction  before
     publication  in  the  Pacific  Reporter.   Readers  are
     requested to bring errors to the attention of the Clerk
     of  the  Appellate  Courts, 303  K  Street,  Anchorage,
     Alaska 99501, phone (907) 264-0608, fax (907) 264-0878,
     e-mail     corrections@appellate.courts.state.ak.us.THE
     SUPREME  COURT  OF THE STATE OF ALASKAJOHN  M.  KOLLER,
     )                             )    Supreme Court No. S-
     10088                    Appellant,                   )
     )     Superior Court  No.   v.                        )
     3KO-99-00284 CI                               )KRISTEEN
     E.   REFT,              )      O  P   I   N   I   O   N
     )             Appellee.              )    [No.  5699  -
     June  13, 2003]_______________________________  )Appeal
     from  the Superior Court of the State of Alaska,  Third
     Judicial  District, Kodiak, Elaine M. Andrews and  Eric
     T.  Sanders, Judges.Appearances:  Steve Cole, Cole  and
     Razo, LLC, Kodiak, for Appellant.  Matthew D. Jamin and
     Karen  L.  Lambert,  Jamin,  Ebell,  Schmitt  &  Mason,
     Kodiak,  for  Appellee. Before:  Fabe,  Chief  Justice,
     Matthews,  Eastaugh,  Bryner, and Carpeneti,  Justices.
     FABE,   Chief  Justice.I.    INTRODUCTION          John
     Koller  appeals several of the superior court's rulings
     and findings concerning the financial ramifications  of
     his  custody dispute with Kristeen Reft over their son,
     Noah.  First, he argues that the superior court had  no
     evidentiary  support for, nor findings explaining,  its
     interim  and  prospective  child  support  awards.   He
     alleges   that  the  court  erroneously   imputed   his
     potential  income  in violation of  Alaska  Civil  Rule
     90.3(a)(4) and then exacerbated the error by increasing
     his   child  support  obligation  under  Rule  90.3(c).
     Second,  John contends that the court erred in ordering
     him  to  pay  Kristeen's attorney's fees,  the  custody
     investigator's  costs,  and  the  fees  for  Kristeen's
     psychological  evaluation.   We  remand  the  award  of
     prospective  child support for additional findings  and
     affirm the remainder of the challenged rulings.
     II.   FACTS  AND  PROCEEDINGS         John  Koller  and
     Kristeen  Reft  had  a brief intimate  relationship  in
     October 1998.  Kristeen lived in the village of  Karluk
     on  Kodiak Island, and John lived in Kodiak,  where  he
     was  finishing a two-year term as a physician.  Shortly
     after  John  left  for a new position  in  New  Mexico,
     Kristeen learned she was pregnant. Interactions between
     Kristeen   and  John  became  and  remained   decidedly
     strained.   In  May 1999 John took a leave  of  absence
     from  his  position in New Mexico so that he  could  be
     present  for his son's birth.  Kristeen gave  birth  to
     Noah  in  July 1999.  Kristeen resisted any involvement
     by John with Noah.
                Unable  to establish an amicable arrangement
     with  Kristeen  for  seeing  his  son,  John  filed   a
     complaint in September 1999 seeking primary custody  of
     Noah.   Pursuant to Civil Rule 90.3, John filed a child
     support guidelines affidavit with his initial pleadings
     and  attached  a  wage statement from his  most  recent
     employer,  the  U.S.  Department of  Health  and  Human
     Services.   These documents showed John's  monthly  net
     income  to  be  $4,938.79  and his  hypothetical  child
     support obligation to be $987.75 per month.
                Kristeen  answered the complaint, responding
     that  she should have custody and that John should  pay
     child  support.  Her child support guidelines affidavit
     estimated her monthly net income to be $826.19.
                 Superior  Court  Judge  Elaine  M.  Andrews
     presided  briefly  over  the  case,  holding  a  status
     hearing  in  November 1999 and issuing  written  orders
     setting  an  interim  custody  schedule,  appointing  a
     custody   investigator,  ordering  John  to   pay   the
     investigator's  retainer  and  initial  expenses,   and
     deferring   the  question  of  whether   any   of   the
     investigator's fees should be paid by Kristeen.
                The  interim custody order awarded  Kristeen
     primary  custody  and  gave John visitation  rights  as
     follows: one out of every four weeks, Kristeen  was  to
     come  to  Kodiak and provide John with three  hours  of
     visitation  each morning and three each afternoon;  the
     remaining  three weeks Kristeen had to offer  John  the
     same  visitation schedule if he was in  Karluk.   John,
     who  emphasizes repeatedly throughout his briefing that
     he  wanted  to spend time with his child during  Noah's
     critical  bonding  stage,  "chose  his  son  over   his
     career,"  living in Karluk three weeks out of four  and
     focusing  on  Noah  during the one  Kodiak  week,  even
     though there were no employment opportunities in Karluk
     and  few  in  Kodiak.  John found no  work  in  Kodiak,
     despite  his  employment opportunities there  prior  to
     moving to New Mexico.  He spent most of the end of 1999
     and  2000  unemployed and living off his  savings,  but
     spending time and bonding with Noah.  For a few  months
     in  2000, John worked in Craig, where his employer  let
     him  work for one or two weeks and then take one or two
     weeks off to return to Kodiak, but John terminated that
     employment because it kept him away from Noah  for  too
     long.
                In  late  1999  the  case  was  assigned  to
     Superior Court Judge Eric T. Sanders. In December  1999
     Judge Sanders ordered John to pay Kristeen $750 a month
     in  interim  child support, to pay $5,000  towards  her
     attorney's fees, and to pay $5,000 towards the  custody
     investigator's  costs.   In  May  2000  Judge   Sanders
     ordered  John  to pay $3,900, the cost  for  Kristeen's
     psychological  evaluation.  At a settlement  conference
     in  July  2000, John and Kristeen reached agreement  on
     the  issues  concerning custody of Noah. On October  3,
     2000,  Judge  Sanders  issued  findings  of  fact   and
     conclusions  of  law granting John and  Kristeen  joint
     legal  and physical custody of Noah and setting  out  a
     year-round  custodial schedule.   On  October  4  Judge
     Sanders  ordered  John to pay another  $10,000  towards
     Kristeen's  attorney's  fees,  $3,000  in  back   child
     support,  and $1,000 a month for future child  support.
     In  February  2001  Judge Sanders ordered  John  to  be
     solely responsible for the remaining $5,611.58 owed  to
     the custody investigator.
               John filed three motions for reconsideration.
     The  first,  filed  October 16, sought  to  modify  the
     October 3 custody order.  The second, filed October 17,
     sought  to modify the October 4 fee and support  order.
     The  third, filed December 19, again sought  to  modify
     the  October  4  fee and support order.  Judge  Sanders
     ruled  that  the first two motions were not well  taken
     because  John had not complied with Civil  Rule  77(k).
     Judge Sanders nevertheless modified his financial order
     to  clarify  his  reasoning for  setting  John's  child
     support  obligation at $1,000 a month.   Judge  Sanders
     struck  the  third  motion, refusing  to  consider  the
     motion  or  its  accompanying  documents,  because  the
     motion was untimely.
               John appeals, arguing that the superior court
     erred  in issuing interim and prospective child support
     orders  without any evidence to support  its  estimates
     and based on his potential income in violation of Civil
     Rule  90.3(a)(4), and that it exacerbated the error  by
     increasing the child support amount under Rule 90.3(c).1
     John  also  argues  that the superior  court  erred  in
     ordering  him  to pay Kristeen's attorney's  fees,  the
     custody   investigator's  costs,  and  the   fees   for
     Kristeen's psychological evaluation.
III. DISCUSSION     A.   Issues Concerning Child Support

We reverse child support awards only if the superior court abused

its discretion or applied an incorrect legal standard.2  We will

find an abuse of discretion when our review of the record leaves

us with "a definite and firm conviction based on the record as a

whole that a mistake has been made."3  Whether the superior court

applied the right legal standard in making its child support

determination is a question of law that we review de novo.4   The

superior court's factual findings regarding a party's income for

calculating child support are subject to the clearly erroneous

standard of review.5

                    1.   John failed to preserve for appeal his
               challenge to the interim child support award.
               
          John argues that the superior court erred by failing to

use the prescribed guidelines under Civil Rule 90.3(a) to

determine John's interim child support obligation, instead

pulling a figure out of "thin air."  John never challenged the

correctness of the interim child support award before the

superior court.  As such, he failed to preserve this claim for

appeal.6

          Even if John had preserved this claim, the interim

award was well within the court's discretion.  The only evidence

of John's income before the court when it issued the interim

child support order in December 1999 was his child support

guidelines affidavit, which indicated that his monthly net income

was $4,938.75 and that his corresponding child support obligation

would be $987.75.  Kristeen is thus correct in asserting that the

information before the court could have justified an award of

$987.75, let alone an award of $750.  Granted, John's income

figures were based on the assumption that John would be returning

to his position in New Mexico, which never occurred.  John

provided no new income figures for the court, however, and did

not submit a new child support guidelines affidavit.7

Accordingly, even if John had preserved this argument for appeal,

setting the interim award at $750 was well within the court's

"broad equitable powers to fashion a child support award."8

          2.   The prospective child support award must be
               remanded for additional findings.
               
          The day after granting John and Kristeen shared

physical custody of Noah, the superior court issued its October

4, 2000 order setting prospective child support. Since John and

Kristeen had joint physical custody, the court traditionally

would have applied the Rule 90.3(b) formula.  Instead, the court

based its award on Rule 90.3(c)(1)(A), finding that "manifest

injustice would result if the standard calculation was utilized

in this instance."  The court found that the increased award was

justified by Kristeen's move from Karluk to Kodiak so that Noah

could spend time with John and by the concomitant sacrifices in

her lifestyle and increases in her expenses.  The court fulfilled

its Rule 90.3(c)(1)(A) obligation to "specify . . . the amount of

support which would have been required but for the variation"

four months later in its order on motions for reconsideration,

when it modified its October 4 order to include the following:

          Based on the parties' prior income earning
          capacity, I find that Dr. Koller should make
          net income in excess of $84,000 per year, and
          Kristeen's is about $12,000 per year.
          Assuming they split custody, which they will
          soon, Rule 90.3(b) would normally require
          John to pay Kristeen $10,800 per year, or
          $900 per month.
          
John challenges the court's estimation of his child support

obligation.

                              a.   The court's estimation of
                    John's income at more than $84,000 did not
                    have adequate evidentiary support.
                    
          John first argues that the court had no basis for

finding his net income to be in excess of $84,000.  It was

certainly understandable that the court intuited that John could

make more than $84,000 as a physician in a town the size of

Kodiak.  Some circumstantial evidence supported this intuition,

such as the fact that John had previously received the employee

of the year award and was made chief of staff at the hospital.

However, given that John notified the court of his difficulties

finding work, the court needed to base John's income figure on

stronger evidence.

          "In determining earning capacity under Alaska Civil

Rule 90.3, a trial court has the discretion to choose `the best

indicator of . . . future earning capacity' based on the evidence

before it."9  The only income documents of John's that the court

had before it on October 4, 2000 were his child support

guidelines affidavit and the attached wage statement from New

Mexico, which showed his net income to be $59,265.48.10  His gross

income, derived from those forms, was $78,396.  "A trial court is

required to make specific findings to support a determination of

adjusted income under Civil Rule 90.3,"11 but the court issued no

findings explaining how it arrived at the $84,000 figure.

Because there was no evidentiary support for the court's finding

that John's income was in excess of $84,000, we vacate the

prospective child support award and remand for additional

findings.  On remand, the court can take additional evidence and

testimony at its discretion concerning the availability of jobs

in the area, how much other similarly situated doctors earn,

John's historical earnings, and what John actually earned.12

                              b.   The exception for parents
                    caring for a child under the age of two would
                    be inapplicable in this context.
                    
          John next contends that the court erred by imputing his

income under Rule 90.3(a)(4).  Because we are vacating the

prospective child support award, we need not determine whether

the court in fact imputed John's income or merely determined

John's future earning capacity.13  However, to provide guidance to

the court should it decide on remand that John was unreasonably

underemployed, we now address John's principal argument, namely

that the court was prohibited from imputing his income because he

was caring for a child under the age of two.

          Rule 90.3(a)(4) states:  "A determination of potential

income may not be made for a parent . . . who is caring for a

child under two years of age to whom the parents owe a joint

legal responsibility."  John's argument is relevant only for the

period from October 2000, when the court ordered prospective

child support, to July 2001, when Noah turned two.  John owed a

legal responsibility to Noah, since "a parent's duty of support

`commences at the date of the birth of the child.' "14  Because

there was shared physical custody, both Kristeen and John could

also be said to be "caring" for Noah.  However, although Rule

90.3(a)(4) applies to cases of shared custody,15 the "caring for a

child" exception is not meant to apply to situations like the

present one.

          If each of the parents sharing physical custody of a

child under the age of two could stop working and claim that his

or her income could not be imputed under Rule 90.3(a)(4), then no

support would be provided for that child.  This result would be

contrary to the very purpose of the Rule 90.3 guidelines, namely

"to ensure that child support orders are adequate to meet the

needs of children, subject to the ability of parents to pay."16

Cases and guidelines from other states support the view that

"caring for a child" exceptions are only intended to prevent the

penalization of one parent who stays home virtually full-time to

act as the primary caregiver.17  The court below may thus impute

John's potential income should it deem such action necessary on

remand, although it can of course consider John's care of Noah

and his difficulty in finding employment when determining whether

John was "voluntarily and unreasonably . . .  unemployed or

underemployed."18

                              c.   The court's use of the
                    "manifest injustice" exception was not an
                    abuse of discretion.
                    
               John contends that the court "exacerbated its

error" by increasing to $1,000 under Rule 90.3(c) the $900 award

it had estimated under Rule 90.3(b).19  Rule 90.3(c)(1) permits

variance from the usual Rule 90.3 calculations "for good cause

upon proof by clear and convincing evidence that manifest

injustice would result" without the variance.  The "good cause"

inquiry "must focus first and foremost on the needs of the

children."20  John maintains that the court's findings of

"manifest injustice" and "good cause" were insufficient and that

the court's focus on Kristeen's move from Karluk to Kodiak

resembled alimony more than child support because it focused on

Kristeen's needs instead of Noah's.  John alleges that Kristeen

had to move to Kodiak anyway for her older son's schooling and

that the court's findings fail to consider the sacrifices that

John made to spend time with Noah.  The court's findings,

however, are not clearly erroneous.

           Rule 90.3(c)(1)(A) states that "good cause" could

include a finding of "unusual circumstances"; the Rule's

commentary notes that examples of unusual circumstances could

include "extraordinary expenses."21  In an affidavit, Kristeen

estimated her expenses for moving to and living in Kodiak.  John

countered the assertions in Kristeen's affidavit in an e-mail to

his lawyer, but although the subject line of this e-mail was

"affidavit," it cannot be considered one.22  Regardless, it was

within the court's discretion to find Kristeen's affidavit to

constitute "clear and convincing evidence" that her expenses for

moving to Kodiak would be "extraordinary," particularly factoring

in Kristeen's income as required by Rule 90.3(c)(1)(A).23

Furthermore, the court acknowledged the distinction between child

support and alimony, noting that "Dr. Koller has a duty to

financially support Noah, not Ms. Reft."  The court's recognition

that Kristeen's move was "so that Noah can be with his father

about half the time" further manifests the court's awareness of

the child's needs.24

          Accordingly, because the court recognized the

distinction between child support and alimony and acted within

its discretion in finding Kristeen's moving expenses to

constitute "unusual circumstances," we conclude that the court

did not err in varying the award under Rule 90.3(c)(1)(A).25  If

the court determines on remand that such a variation is still

required to avoid manifest injustice, it may again use Rule

90.3(c)(1)(A) to vary the award to an amount it believes is "just

and proper for [John] to contribute toward the nurture and

education of [his] child[]."26

          B.   Issues Concerning Fees and Costs

          John challenges several of the superior court's orders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       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We review for abuse of discretion a