In this chapter,
(1) “affiliate of a declarant”
(A) means a person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with a declarant;
(B) as used in this paragraph, a person “controls” a declarant if the person
(i) is a general partner, officer, director, or employer of the declarant;
(ii) directly or indirectly or acting in concert with one or more other persons, or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing more than 20 percent of the voting interest in the declarant;
(iii) controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of the declarant; or
(iv) has contributed more than 20 percent of the capital of the declarant;
(C) as used in this paragraph, a person “is controlled by” a declarant if the declarant
(i) is a general partner, officer, director, or employer of the person;
(ii) directly or indirectly or acting in concert with one or more other persons, or through one or more subsidiaries, owns, controls, holds with power to vote, or holds proxies representing, more than 20 percent of the voting interest in the person;
(iii) controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of the person; or
(iv) has contributed more than 20 percent of the capital of the person;
(D) as used in this paragraph, “control” does not exist if the powers described in this paragraph are held solely as security for an obligation and are not exercised;
(2) “allocated interests” means the following interests allocated to each unit:
(A) in a condominium, the undivided interest in the common elements, the common expense liability, and votes in the association;
(B) in a cooperative, the common expense liability and the ownership interest and votes in the association; and
(C) in a planned community, the common expense liability and votes in the association;
(3) “association” or “unit owners’ association” means the unit owners’ association organized under AS 34.08.310;
(4) “common elements” means
(A) in a condominium or cooperative, each portion of the common interest community other than a unit; and
(B) in a planned community, the real estate within a planned community owned or leased by the association, other than a unit;
(5) “common expense liability” means the liability for common expenses allocated to each unit under AS 34.08.150;
(6) “common expenses” means expenditures made by, or financial liabilities of, the association, together with any allocations to reserves;
(7) “common interest community” means real estate with respect to which a person, by virtue of ownership of a unit, is obligated to pay for real estate taxes, insurance premiums, maintenance, or improvement of other real estate described in a declaration;
(8) “condominium” means a common interest community in which
(A) portions of the real estate are designated for separate ownership;
(B) the remainder of the real estate is designated for common ownership solely by the owners of those portions; and
(C) the undivided interests in the common elements are vested in the unit owners;
(9) “conversion property” means real estate that before creation of the common interest community, was occupied wholly or partially by persons other than purchasers and persons who occupy with the consent of purchasers;
(10) “cooperative” means a common interest community in which the real estate is owned by an association, each of whose members is entitled by virtue of an ownership interest in the association to exclusive possession of a unit;
(11) “dealer” means a person who owns either six or more units in a common interest community or 50 percent or more of the units in a common interest community;
(12) “declarant” means a person or a group of persons acting in concert who
(A) as part of a common promotional plan, offers to dispose of its interest in a unit not previously disposed of; or
(B) reserves or succeeds to a special declarant right;
(A) means an instrument, however described, that creates a common interest community; and
(B) includes amendments to a declaration;
(14) “development right” means a right or a combination of rights reserved by a declarant in the declaration to
(A) add real estate to a common interest community;
(B) create units, common elements, or limited common elements within a common interest community;
(C) subdivide units or convert units into common elements; or
(D) withdraw real estate from a common interest community;
(15) “dispose” or “disposition”
(A) means a voluntary transfer to a purchaser of any legal or equitable interest in a unit;
(B) does not include the transfer or release of a security interest;
(16) “executive board” means the body designated in the declaration to act on behalf of the association;
(17) “identifying number” means a symbol or address that identifies only one unit in a common interest community;
(18) “leasehold common interest community” means a common interest community in which all or a portion of the real estate is subject to a lease that, on its expiration or termination, will terminate the common interest community or reduce its size;
(19) “limited common element” means the portion of the common elements allocated for the exclusive use of one or more but fewer than all of the units by the declaration or by operation of AS 34.08.100(2) or (4);
(A) means an advertisement, inducement, solicitation, or attempt to encourage a person to acquire an interest in a unit, other than as security for an obligation;
(B) does not include an advertisement in a newspaper or other periodical of general circulation, or in any other broadcast medium to the general public describing a common interest community not located in the state if the advertisement states that an offering may be made only in compliance with the law of the jurisdiction in which the common interest community is located;
(22) “ownership of a unit” does not include a leasehold interest, including renewal options, of less than 40 years in a unit;
(23) “person” means
(A) an individual, corporation, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, association, joint venture, government, government subdivision or agency, or other legal or commercial entity;
(B) in the case of a land trust, the beneficiary of the land trust and not the land trust or its trustee;
(24) “planned community” means a common interest community that is not a condominium or a cooperative although a condominium or cooperative may be part of a planned community;
(25) “proprietary lease” means the agreement with the association under which a member is entitled to exclusive possession of a unit in a cooperative;
(26) “purchaser” means a person, other than a declarant or a dealer, who by means of a voluntary transfer acquires a legal or equitable interest in a unit other than
(A) a leasehold interest, including renewal options, of less than 40 years; or
(B) as security for an obligation;
(27) “real estate”
(A) means a leasehold or other estate or interest in, over, or under land, including structures, fixtures, and other improvements and interests that by custom, usage, or law pass with a conveyance of land though not described in the contract of sale or instrument of conveyance;
(B) includes parcels with or without upper or lower boundaries, and spaces that may be filled with air or water;
(28) “residential purposes” means use for dwelling or recreational purposes, or both;
(29) “security interest”
(A) means an interest in real estate or personal property, created by contract or conveyance, that secures payment or performance of an obligation;
(B) includes a lien created by a mortgage, deed of trust, trust deed, security deed, contract for deed, land sales contract, lease intended as security, assignment of lease or rents intended as security, pledge of an ownership interest in an association, and any other consensual lien or title retention contract intended as security for an obligation;
(30) “special declarant rights” means the right reserved for the benefit of a declarant to
(A) complete improvements indicated on plats and plans filed and recorded with the declaration or, in a cooperative, to complete improvements described in the public offering statement under AS 34.08.530(a)(2);
(B) exercise a development right;
(C) maintain sales offices, management offices, signs advertising the common interest community, and models;
(D) use easements through the common elements for the purpose of making improvements within the common interest community or within real estate that may be added to the common interest community;
(E) make the common interest community subject to a master association;
(F) merge or consolidate a common interest community with another common interest community of the same form of ownership; or
(G) appoint or remove an officer of the association or a master association or an executive board member during a period of declarant control;
(31) “time share” means a right to occupy a unit or any of several units during five or more separated time periods over a period of at least five years, including renewal options, whether or not coupled with an estate or interest in a common interest community or a specified portion of a common interest community;
(32) “unit” means a physical portion of the common interest community designated for separate ownership or occupancy, the boundaries of which are described under AS 34.08.130(a)(5);
(33) “unit owner”
(i) a declarant;
(ii) a person who owns a unit;
(iii) a person who leases a unit in a leasehold common interest community whose lease expires simultaneously with any lease that on its expiration or termination will remove the unit from the common interest community;
(B) does not include a person having an interest in a unit solely as security for an obligation;
(i) in a condominium or planned community, the declarant as the owner of any unit created by the declaration;
(ii) in a cooperative, the declarant as the owner of any unit to which allocated interests have been allocated until that unit has been conveyed to another person.
Other Sections in this Chapter:
- Sec. 34.08.010. Applicability generally. Repealed
- Sec. 34.08.030. Applicability to limited expense liability planned communities.
- Sec. 34.08.035. Prohibited subdivisions.
- Sec. 34.08.040. Applicability to preexisting common interest communities.
- Sec. 34.08.050. Applicability to small preexisting cooperatives and planned communities.
- Sec. 34.08.060. Amendments to governing instruments.
- Sec. 34.08.070. Applicability to nonresidential common interest communities.
- Sec. 34.08.080. Applicability to out-of-state common interest communities.
- Sec. 34.08.090. Creation of common interest communities.
- Sec. 34.08.100. Unit boundaries.
- Sec. 34.08.110. Construction and validity of declaration and bylaws.
- Sec. 34.08.120. Description of units.
- Sec. 34.08.130. Contents of declaration.
- Sec. 34.08.140. Leasehold common interest communities.
- Sec. 34.08.150. Allocation of allocated interests.
- Sec. 34.08.160. Limited common elements.
- Sec. 34.08.170. Plats and plans.
- Sec. 34.08.180. Exercise of development rights.
- Sec. 34.08.190. Alterations of units.
- Sec. 34.08.200. Relocation of boundaries between adjoining units.
- Sec. 34.08.210. Subdivision of units.
- Sec. 34.08.220. Easement for encroachments.
- Sec. 34.08.230. Use for sales purposes.
- Sec. 34.08.240. Easement rights.
- Sec. 34.08.250. Amendment of declaration.
- Sec. 34.08.255. Amendment of a declaration where fewer than 50 percent of unit owners approve.
- Sec. 34.08.260. Termination of common interest community.
- Sec. 34.08.270. Rights of secured lenders.
- Sec. 34.08.280. Master associations.
- Sec. 34.08.290. Merger or consolidation of common interest communities.
- Sec. 34.08.300. Addition of unspecified real estate.
- Sec. 34.08.310. Organization of unit owners’ association.
- Sec. 34.08.320. Powers of unit owners’ association.
- Sec. 34.08.330. Executive board members and officers.
- Sec. 34.08.340. Transfer of association control.
- Sec. 34.08.350. Transfer of special declarant rights.
- Sec. 34.08.360. Termination of contracts and leases of declarant.
- Sec. 34.08.370. Bylaws.
- Sec. 34.08.380. Upkeep of common interest community.
- Sec. 34.08.390. Meetings.
- Sec. 34.08.400. Quorums.
- Sec. 34.08.410. Voting and proxies.
- Sec. 34.08.420. Tort and contract liability.
- Sec. 34.08.430. Conveyance or encumbrance of common elements.
- Sec. 34.08.440. Insurance.
- Sec. 34.08.450. Surplus funds.
- Sec. 34.08.460. Assessments for common expenses.
- Sec. 34.08.470. Lien for assessments.
- Sec. 34.08.480. Other liens.
- Sec. 34.08.490. Association records.
- Sec. 34.08.500. Association as trustee.
- Sec. 34.08.510. Applicability.
- Sec. 34.08.520. Liability for public offering statement requirements.
- Sec. 34.08.530. Public offering statements generally.
- Sec. 34.08.540. Common interest communities subject to development rights.
- Sec. 34.08.550. Time shares.
- Sec. 34.08.560. Common interest communities containing conversion property.
- Sec. 34.08.570. Common interest community securities.
- Sec. 34.08.580. Purchaser’s right to cancel.
- Sec. 34.08.590. Resales of units.
- Sec. 34.08.600. Escrow of deposits.
- Sec. 34.08.610. Release of liens.
- Sec. 34.08.620. Conversion property.
- Sec. 34.08.630. Express warranties of quality.
- Sec. 34.08.640. Implied warranties of quality.
- Sec. 34.08.650. Exclusion or modification of implied warranties of quality.
- Sec. 34.08.660. Statute of limitations for warranties.
- Sec. 34.08.670. Effect of violations on rights of action.
- Sec. 34.08.680. Labeling of promotional material.
- Sec. 34.08.690. Declarant’s obligation to complete and restore.
- Sec. 34.08.700. Substantial completion of units.
- Sec. 34.08.710. Variation by agreement.
- Sec. 34.08.720. Separate titles and taxation.
- Sec. 34.08.730. Applicability of local ordinances, regulations, and building codes.
- Sec. 34.08.740. Eminent domain.
- Sec. 34.08.750. Supplemental general principles of law applicable.
- Sec. 34.08.760. Construction against implicit repeal.
- Sec. 34.08.770. Uniformity of application and construction.
- Sec. 34.08.780. Severability.
- Sec. 34.08.790. Unconscionable agreement or term of contract.
- Sec. 34.08.800. Obligation of good faith.
- Sec. 34.08.810. Remedies to be liberally administered.
- Sec. 34.08.820. Adjustment of dollar amounts.
- Sec. 34.08.830. Transfer of unit in a cooperative.
- Sec. 34.08.995. Short title.