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You can search the entire site. or go to the recent opinions, or the chronological or subject indices. Kinzel v. Discovery Drilling, Inc. (06/25/2004) sp-5820

Kinzel v. Discovery Drilling, Inc. (06/25/2004) sp-5820

     Notice:   This opinion is subject to correction  before
     publication  in  the  Pacific  Reporter.   Readers  are
     requested to bring errors to the attention of the Clerk
     of  the  Appellate  Courts, 303  K  Street,  Anchorage,
     Alaska 99501, phone (907) 264-0608, fax (907) 264-0878,


JEFFREY KINZEL and            )
CHERYL KINZEL,           )    Supreme Court No. S-10190
               Appellants,         )
                              )    Superior Court No.
     v.                       )    3AN-99-10959 CI
and HART CROWSER, INC.,       )
               Appellees.           )     [No. 5820  -  June  25,

          Appeal  from the Superior Court of the  State
          of    Alaska,   Third   Judicial    District,
          Anchorage, Peter A. Michalski, Judge.

          Appearances:   Marion C.  Kelly,  Bernard  P.
          Kelly, Wade, Kelly & Sullivan, Anchorage, for
          Appellants.  Paul S. Wilcox, Lisa  C.  Hamby,
          Hughes  Thorsness Powell Huddleston &  Bauman
          LLC,   Anchorage,   for  Appellee   Discovery
          Drilling, Inc.  Mary L. Pate, Eide, Miller  &
          Pate,  P.C.,  Anchorage,  for  Appellee  Hart
          Crowser, Inc.

          Before:    Fabe,  Chief  Justice,   Matthews,
          Eastaugh, Bryner, and Carpeneti, Justices.

          MATTHEWS, Justice.


          Jeffrey Kinzel filed an occupational safety and  hazard

complaint  against  Hart  Crowser, the  company  with  which  his

employer,   Discovery  Drilling,  had  subcontracted.    He   was

subsequently reassigned to a different worksite, where he injured

his  back.   He  filed for workers compensation and took  medical

leave,  but was soon fired.  He sued Hart Crowser for defamation,

negligence, and intentional interference with contract,  and  his

employer  for  defamation and wrongful termination.   After  some

claims  were  dismissed on summary judgment, a  jury  rendered  a

verdict for both defendants on all remaining claims.  This appeal

involves  a number of challenges to the superior courts pre-trial

and trial rulings.


          In  the  summer  of 1998, Kinzel was a  laborer  on  an

environmental  cleanup  site at Fort Wainwright.   As  a  general

laborer Kinzel was open to any kind of work, but the majority  of

his  time  was  spent  digging trenches in  a  small,  closed-cab

backhoe.   This was considered less demanding work than  some  of

the other job possibilities at the site.

          Kinzels  employer, Discovery Drilling,  Inc.,  provided

subcontracting  work  for Hart Crowser,  Inc.,  an  environmental

engineering  company.  The two companies had a long relationship.

For  the  Fort  Wainwright site, Hart Crowser subcontracted  with

Discovery   for   both   drilling   and   remediation   services.

Specifically, Discoverys role in the project was in part soil and

ground  water remediation, a process of digging trenches  with  a

backhoe  and  then assembling a grid of wells, pumps,  and  pipes

known  as  a  remediation system intended to remove environmental

contaminants from groundwater and soil.  This was a  two-man  job

for  Discovery,  employing only Kinzel  and  his  colleague  Gary

Erickson.  Though Erickson had more seniority, Kinzel served in a

de  facto  supervisory  capacity for the pair,  as  he  was  more

familiar  with the Fort Wainwright location and the Hart  Crowser

employees who worked there from his previous summer at the  site.

In  particular, Kinzel had more open lines of communication  with

Craig  Martin,  Hart  Crowser project  manager  and  the  ranking

supervisor  at  the site.  Kinzels supervision  applied  only  to

Erickson,  and he was subject to the supervision and  control  of

both his employer and Hart Crowser.

          Beginning in May of that year and continuing until  the

Fourth  of  July weekend, the weather was hot and  windy.   As  a

result,  Kinzel  and Erickson had problems with dust.   In  early

June, because of a severe sinus infection, Erickson was forced to

visit  a doctor.  He immediately suspected that his sickness  was

connected  to the worksite dust, and filed an anonymous complaint

with  the  Alaska  Department of Labor, Division of  Occupational

Safety  and  Health  (OSH).  It appears that this  complaint  was

never investigated.

          Kinzel  also sought medical attention for a respiratory

infection.   This  resulted in his having to  take  several  days

leave.   Kinzel  testified that after his sickness  he  was  more

vocal   about  potential  safety  issues  involving   dust,   but

eventually found it pointless to keep on complaining because Hart

Crowsers project manager, Martin, didnt want to hear about it.

          The  dust  became a bone of contention  because  Martin

thought  the Discovery employees were wasting too much  time  and

were  going  over his head to solve a problem that  he  felt  was

minor  or  nonexistent.  Martin found Kinzels efforts  especially

problematic  because Hart Crowser and Discovery  employees  often

worked on joint projects, and he believed Hart Crowser could  get

little or nothing done if Discovery employees were spending  time

trying to avoid or control dust.  Martin told Kinzel and Erickson

to  quit . . . whining and if [they] have a problem with the dust

[they] can just leave.

          During the Fourth of July weekend, Discoverys president

Kyle  Brown  and  Kinzel met to discuss the growing  difficulties

between  Discovery  and  Hart  Crowser  employees  at  the   Fort

Wainwright site.  Brown seemed to be particularly concerned  with

the  tension between Kinzel and Martin.  He and Kinzel  spoke  of

communication problems and apparently came to a mutual  agreement

about getting a fresh start at the site.

          After the weekend, dust became less of a problem as the

work changed to a new area.  However this new worksite emitted  a

pungent, gasoline or pesticide odor which many feared was unsafe.

Hart  Crowser  tested the ground water but found  no  significant

contamination.   Around the same time, fearing that  nothing  was

being  done in response to Ericksons complaint, Kinzel  filed  an

OSH complaint, eventually prompting an investigation.

          Around  the time of the OSH inspectors arrival  at  the

site,  Hart  Crowser cordoned off an exclusion zone encircling  a

suspected area of contamination.  No one was permitted into  this

zone  without a respirator.  Kinzel expressed some resistence  to

wearing a mask just to enter the zone, because this would require

him to shave off his beard.

          On  July  25  a  Hart Crowser employee, Bryan  Johnson,

reported to Martin that he had seen Kinzel in the exclusion  zone

without  a  respirator  for the second time.   At  Hart  Crowsers

request  Kinzel was asked to leave the Fort Wainwright  worksite,

and he reported back to Discoverys Anchorage headquarters.

          After   Kinzel   returned   to   Anchorage,   Discovery

reassigned  him  to a more arduous job in Glennallen,  under  the

supervision of a foreman whom Kinzel believed to be hard  on  his

men.  After several days of long shifts and heavy lifting, Kinzel

suffered  serious  back pain.  He asked to be relieved  from  the

project, and on August 2 returned to Anchorage, visiting a doctor

the  following day.  His doctor, Dr. Derek Hagen, gave him a note

releasing him to light duty work only.

          Kinzel  returned  to the Discovery  office  and  had  a

conversation with Brown, the substance of which was  disputed  at

trial.  Discovery claims that Brown had light duty work available

for  Kinzel, but that Kinzel told Brown he was supposed  to  take

two  to  three  days off, never revealing the light duty  doctors

note.  Kinzel claims that he attempted to give the note to Brown,

but that Brown refused to look at it.  According to Kinzel, Brown

then  said, if you cant work in the field, then you might as well

go  home.  Discovery counters that Kinzel did not return to  work

after the 2-3 days he said the doctor told him to be off.

          On  August  12   Kinzel  filed a  workers  compensation

injury  report.  Brown signed the report on the same day, stating

that there was no injury  the employee does not like the work and

has  been  reassigned.  On August 12 Kinzel took a new note  from

Dr.  Hagen to Brown; the note stated that Kinzel should not  work

until the end of August.

          Brown  claims that he understood Kinzel was to  be  off

work only until the end of August.  But on August 31 Brown signed

a form containing Dr. Hagens handwritten statement that indicated

that Kinzel was to be off work until October 8 pending orthopedic

evaluation.   Brown  claims  he never  saw   this  statement  and

instead  only signed the form where asked.  The doctors statement

is  a  few lines above the section Brown filled out.  Brown wrote

ALLEGED under the forms reference to illness or injury.

          In  early September Brown terminated Kinzels employment

at   Discovery.   Brown  eventually  sent  a  letter  to   Kinzel

explaining  his reasons for the termination.1  The letter  states

that the reasons

          pertinent to your discharge are your directly
          lying to me about the results of your doctors
          visit  on August 3rd, 1998, including failure
          to  give me the doctors note from that visit,
          and failure to return to work, to come by the
          office  in  person, or to call the office  on
          September  1st,  1998 as was specified  in  a
          later   doctors  note  that  we  did  receive
          clearing you to return to work on that  date.
          We  received  no further correspondence  from
          you or notes from any doctors on your behalf.
          You  clearly  had no interest in  maintaining
          your  job or showing even common courtesy  to
          your employer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Kinzel and his wife Cheryl filed the present suit
against Discovery and Hart Crowser in October 1999, alleging
retaliatory and constructive discharge claims against Discovery,
multiple defamation claims against both defendants, an
intentional interference with contract claim against Hart
Crowser, and a negligence and a cancer phobia2 claim against Hart
Crowser.  Because of summary judgment rulings, by the time of
trial only one of Kinzels defamation claims remained against each
defendant, along with a fear of cancer claim against Hart Crowser
and a wrongful termination claim against Discovery.
          The  jury  rendered  a verdict for both  defendants  on

these claims.

          Kinzel appeals.


     Issues on Appeal

          Kinzel  raises numerous issues on appeal.   The  issues

discussed in this opinion are set out below along with a  summary

of our resolution of each.  Other issues

are resolved summarily.  They are listed in the margin along with

a summary reason for our decision concerning each.3

     1.    Did  the trial court err in failing to give  a  mixed-

motive  instruction  on  the retaliatory discharge  claim?   Yes,

because  the  evidence was sufficiently strong  that  Kinzel  was

discharged for reasons that included a prohibited motive.

     2.   Did the trial court err in limiting Kinzel to two weeks

severance pay for his retaliatory discharge claim?  Yes,  because

a retaliatory discharge in violation of an explicit public policy

gives rise to a tort as well as a contract claim.

     3.   Did the trial court err in granting summary judgment to

Hart  Crowser  on  Kinzels  first  defamation  claim?   Yes,  the

challenged  statement  could  reasonably  be  interpreted  as  an

assessment based upon factual underpinnings.

     4.    Did the trial court err in connection with instructing

the  jury  regarding Kinzels defamation claim against  Discovery?

There  is no reversible error on this point.  The error that  was

made  was  harmless and Kinzels argument regarding an instruction

that  should have been given is considered abandoned  because  of

inadequate briefing.

     5.    Did the trial court err in excluding medical testimony

     regarding Kinzels back injury?  No, the trial courts exclusionary

rulings  were  correct when made and the court  properly  allowed

such evidence when its relevance to Kinzels defamation claim  was


     6.    Did  the  trial  court err in  granting  Hart  Crowser

summary   judgment  on  Kinzels  intentional  interference   with

contract  claim?  Yes, there are genuine issues of material  fact

as to cause and privilege.

          We proceed to a discussion of the above issues.

     1.   Mixed-Motive Instruction

          Kinzel  complained that Discovery wrongfully terminated

him for his role in filing OSH complaints against Hart Crowser or

for  filing  for workers compensation benefits.   At  trial,  the

superior  court  gave  the following jury instruction   regarding

this claim:

               In   considering   Discovery   Drillings
          reasons  for terminating Jeffrey  Kinzel,  if
          you conclude that Discovery Drilling made its
          decision to terminate Jeffrey Kinzel  in  the
          good-faith  belief  that Jeffrey  Kinzel  had
          misrepresented  the  nature  of  the  doctors
          releases hed obtained and a good-faith belief
          that  Jeffrey Kinzel failed to return to work
          at the end of the period for which his doctor
          had released him, you may find that Discovery
          Drilling acted in good faith even if it [was]
          later   discovered  that  the   reasons   for
          terminating Jeffrey Kinzel were mistaken.[4]
The special verdict form was worded:

               (16)  Did  Jeffrey Kinzels filing  of  a
          workers    compensation    claim    have    a
          determinative  effect in Discovery  Drillings
          decision-making  process in  terminating  his
               . . . .
               (17)  Did  Jeffrey Kinzels filing  of  a
          complaint  with  AKOSH have  a  determinative
          effect in Discovery Drillings decision-making
          process in terminating his employment?
The jury answered no to both of these questions.

          In  Veco,  Inc. v. Rosebrock we laid out the  framework

          for retaliatory discharge claims.5  To establish a prima facie

case of retaliation, a plaintiff must show:

          (1)  that  [the employee] was  engaged  in  a
          protected activity;
          (2)  that an adverse employment decision  was
          made; and
          (3)   that  there  was  a  causal  connection
          between the two.[6]
Quoting  from  Miller v. Fairchild Industries, Inc.,7  we  stated

that  [c]ausation sufficient to establish a prima facie  case  of

unlawful retaliation may be inferred from the proximity  in  time

between  the  protected  action  and  the  allegedly  retaliatory

discharge  . . . .8  Once a prima facie case is established,  the

burden  of  production  shifts to the employer  to  articulate  a

legitimate  nonretaliatory explanation  for  the  discharge.   To

satisfy  this  burden, the employer need only produce  admissible

evidence  which  would  allow the trier  of  fact  rationally  to

conclude  that the employment decision had not been motivated  by

discriminatory  animus. 9  If the employer meets  its  burden  of

production  by  articulating a legitimate reason for  terminating

the  employee, then the burden shifts once again to the plaintiff

to  show  that the defendants proffered explanation is  merely  a

pretext for discrimination.10

          In  this  case  Kinzel  made  a  prima  facie  case  of

retaliation.   He engaged in protected activities when  he  filed

his  OSH  complaint and workers compensation claim,  and  he  was

fired.   The  close proximity in time between these  events  gave

rise   to  an  inference  of  causation.   Discovery  articulated

legitimate,  nondiscriminatory reasons for firing  Kinzel.   Thus

the  burden  shifted back to Kinzel to prove that  these  reasons

were  pretextual.  The focus at trial was the motive  for  firing

Kinzel.   Were  the  reasons  offered  by  Discovery  genuine  or


          Kinzel was not satisfied with the instructions that the

court  eventually  gave and requested a mixed-motive  instruction

          similar to the mixed-motive instruction in Veco.11

          In  Era  Aviation, Inc. v. Lindfors12 we explained  the

nature and function of a mixed-motive instruction:

               In  cases where there is direct evidence
          of   discrimination,  we  instead   apply   a
          mixed-motive analysis, which recognizes  that
          discriminatory employment decisions  may  not
          be   motivated   solely   by   a   prohibited
          characteristic such as race or sex,  but  may
          be  based  on  a  mixture of  legitimate  and
          illegitimate   considerations.    Under   the
          mixed-motive  framework, once  the  plaintiff
          has  cleared the initial hurdle of presenting
          direct evidence of discriminatory intent, the
          plaintiffs  ultimate  burden  of   proof   is
          somewhat  relaxed:   the jury  is  instructed
          that the plaintiff can prevail in a claim  of
          discrimination  by showing  that  gender  was
          simply a motivating factor, as opposed to the
          determinative   factor,   in   the    adverse
          employment decision.  Still, gender must be a
          determinative cause, but the burden shifts to
          the  employer  on this point.   The  employer
          must  show that it would have made  the  same
          decision   even   absent  considerations   of
          gender.   Although the plaintiff  may  pursue
          mixed-motive      and     pretext      claims
          simultaneously, if the jury finds  no  direct
          evidence of discrimination, it must find  the
          defendant liable, if at all, under a  pretext
          As the above language makes clear, there must be direct

evidence  that the employers conduct was motivated, at  least  in

part,  by  a prohibited reason  in Era gender discrimination,  in

the  present case retaliation because the employee filed  an  OSH

claim or a workers compensation claim.  Kinzel argues that he met

this requirement and Discovery argues that he did not.

          The  term direct evidence in the context of the  mixed-

motive  methodology comes from the decision of the United  States

Supreme Court in Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins.14  Courts subsequent

to  Price Waterhouse have struggled with the meaning of the  term

direct.   The Second Circuit has observed that direct should  not

be understood

          in  its  sense  as antonym of circumstantial,
          for  that  type of direct evidence  as  to  a
          mental state is usually impossible to obtain:
               Direct    evidence,    it
               seems,  is an unfortunate
               choice of terminology for
               the  sort of proof needed
               to   establish  a  mixed-
               motives case. Direct  and
               indirect describe not the
               quality  of the  evidence
               presented, but the manner
               in  which  the  plaintiff
               proves his case. Strictly
               speaking, the only direct
               evidence  that a decision
               was  made because  of  an
               impermissible      factor
               would be an admission  by
               the decisionmaker such as
               I  fired  him because  he
               was   too  old.  Even   a
               statement   like   You're
               fired,   old  man   still
               requires  the  factfinder
               to   draw  the  inference
               that  the plaintiffs  age
               had a causal relationship
               to   the  decision.   But
               juries  have always  been
               allowed   to  draw   such
The  Second Circuit takes the position that a plaintiff may prove

that  a  forbidden animus was a motivating factor through  either

direct  or  circumstantial evidence so long as the circumstantial

evidence is sufficiently strong.  Mere statistical evidence would

not warrant a mixed-motive charge, nor would stray remarks in the

workplace  by  persons  who  are not involved  in  the  pertinent

decisionmaking process.16

          The  Second  Circuit court in Ostrowski summarized  its

approach to mixed-motive cases as follows:

               In   sum,   if  the  plaintiff  presents
          evidence of conduct or statements by  persons
          involved  in the decisionmaking process  that
          may  be  viewed  as directly  reflecting  the
          alleged  discriminatory  attitude,  and  that
          evidence   is   sufficient  to   permit   the
          factfinder  to infer that that  attitude  was
               more likely than not a motivating factor in
          the  employers decision, the jury  should  be
          instructed   that  if  it  does   draw   that
          inference   the  plaintiff  is  entitled   to
          recover  unless the employer has  established
          by  a preponderance of the evidence that  the
          employer  would  have taken the  same  action
          without  consideration of  the  impermissible
          factor.   The jury should also be instructed,
          in  substance, that the employer may not meet
          its  burden  in  [a  mixed-motives]  case  by
          merely  showing  that  at  the  time  of  the
          decision it was motivated only in part  by  a
          legitimate  reason.  .  .  .   The   employer
          instead must show that its legitimate reason,
          standing alone, would have induced it to make
          the same decision.[17]
          We  agree  with  the Second Circuits  approach  to  the

quantum  of  proof  required in order to justify  a  mixed-motive

instruction.  We align ourselves with these views in  recognition

of the difficulty of proving that an unlawful motive impelled any

particular   employment   decision  and   the   desirability   of

implementing the statutory policy against retaliatory discharges.18

          We  discussed  the sufficiency of the  evidence  for  a

mixed-motive instruction in Era.  In Era we considered whether  a

plaintiff, who complained of gender discrimination, had presented

enough  evidence  to  warrant a mixed-motive instruction.19   The

evidence  presented  in that case involved two  harsh  statements

directed toward the plaintiff in which she was told she had no  .

.  .  business  being a captain and that she  would  never  be  a

captain.20  We noted that these statements could not be construed

to  be  direct evidence that sex was a factor in Eras failure  to

promote  the  plaintiff.21  While the statements  were  certainly

clear  that  the  Era decisionmaker had a strong  view  that  the

employee did not deserve a promotion, they were silent as to  the

reasons  for this view.  Both statements are ambiguous  they  can

be  interpreted  in a discriminatory or benign way   and  do  not

reflect directly on Eras discriminatory animus.22

          Here,  Kinzel argues that unlike the situation in  Era,

the  evidence presented at trial revealed an animus based on  his

          protected activity.  At trial, Kinzel presented two e-mails

written and sent by Brown to Craig Martin.  The first e-mail  was

dated July 25, 1998.  Brown wrote Martin:

          I  understand that you have told Dave to have
          Jeff   Kinzel  removed  from  the  site.    I
          understand.  Please confirm that  request  to
          me  in writing.  It can be by e-mail or  fax.
          If you would include an official reason, that
          would  be  helpful.  I do apologize  for  the
          recent  events, however I was  stuck  in  the
          middle  between you and Jeff.   I  assume  we
          might  take up all that at a later time  when
          the wound is not so fresh.
At  trial, Brown was asked to explain what wound he was referring

to in his message.  Brown replied,

          Well, obviously, an OSHA investigation is  an
          unpleasant  arrangement in any  regard.   The
          things that they were looking into, Craig was
          clearly  not  happy about it.  In  a  general
          sense,  I  dont know that anybody  was  happy
          about  having to discontinue what  they  were
          doing   and   respond  to  the  investigators
          In  an  e-mail dated August 13, 1998, to Martin,  Brown


          Craig, I am sure that neither of us are happy
          about  the way this project ended.  It was  a
          no  win  situation  for  absolutely  everyone
          involved.  . . .  I just wanted to touch base
          after the initial pain had subsided a bit and
          say  that  I clearly tried too long  to  give
          Jeff  [Kinzel]  a  chance  to  get  over  the
          details  and see the big picture. .  .  .   I
          will be paying for a long time for giving him
          a chance.
When  Brown was asked at trial about his use of the words initial

pain,  he  acknowledged that he again was referring  to  the  OSH

investigation.  He further testified that he was upset more about

Kinzels report to OSH than he was about the quality of his work.

          Browns  e-mails and corresponding testimony  reveal  an

animus  based  on  Kinzels OSH report.  Brown  characterized  the

actions of Kinzel as creating a wound and a pain in the relations

between  Discovery  and Hart Crowser, and Browns  explanation  at

trial revealed he was upset with Kinzel for these actions:  So  I

guess  what  I  was  upset about was not the work.   These  facts

distinguish this case from Era.  In Era, the plaintiff failed  to

provide  evidence  of animus based on forbidden  motives.   Here,

however, the evidence shows an animus triggered by Kinzels safety


          Although the e-mail statements by Brown as explained by

his testimony directly reflect an animus against Kinzel based  on

Kinzels protected conduct, was the evidence sufficient to  permit

a  jury  to infer that that attitude was more likely than  not  a

motivating factor in the employers decision?23  We believe that it

was  sufficient.   The e-mail evidence plainly suggests  that  at

least  one adverse employment decision was made by Brown  because

of  Kinzels  OSH  report:   Kinzels reassignment  from  the  Fort

Wainwright   job  to  the  more  physically  demanding   job   at

Glennallen.  Although this adverse employment action was not  the

one  that was under review by the jury, Kinzel was fired a little

more than a month after he was reassigned.  If an improper motive

played  a  role  in the reassignment, there is little  reason  to

think  that  it would have been dispelled at the time of  Kinzels


          We  conclude  therefore that a mixed-motive instruction

should have been given.  But Discovery argues that the failure to

give  such  an instruction was harmless error as the  jury  found

Kinzels  filing  of  a workers compensation claim  and  an  AKOSH

complaint  did  not  have  a determinative  effect  in  Discovery

Drillings  decisionmaking process in terminating his  employment.

Discovery misses the point of a mixed-motive instruction.  If the

jury had been given a mixed-motive instruction, Kinzel would only

have  had  to  show  that  Discoverys  prohibited  motive  was  a

motivating factor, though not necessarily a determinative one, in

the  decision  to fire Kinzel.  If the jury so found  the  burden

would  have shifted to Discovery to show that it would have fired

Kinzel even if he had not initiated safety-related complaints  on

          the Fort Wainwright job.  By contrast, under the instructions as

given,  the  burden was on Kinzel to show that his filing  had  a

determinative effect.25  Since the jurys finding was not guided by

an  appropriate instruction, it does not show that the failure to

give such an instruction was harmless.26

     2.   Limiting Lost Wages to Two Weeks

          The  superior court ruled that since Kinzel was an  at-

will  employee  subject  to termination  upon  two  weeks  notice

without cause, Kinzel was entitled to lost wages for no more than

two  weeks pay.  Kinzel claims that this limitation was erroneous

because his retaliatory discharge action should be considered  an

action  in tort rather than contract.  He argues that it  follows

from  the  tort  nature of his claim that his  lost  wages  claim

should  not be limited to the two-week notice period and  further

that emotional distress damages, loss of consortium damages,  and

punitive  damages were eliminated by the courts ruling  that  his

retaliation claim could only be recognized in contract.

          Discovery  responds that this argument is not  a  basis

for  reversal since it relates only to the measure of damages and

the jury found for Discovery on the liability issues relating  to

the  wrongful  termination  claim.  Discovery  also  argues  that

breaches  of  the  covenant of good faith and fair  dealing  have

consistently been held to be contract actions in Alaska, that the

proper measure of damages in a wrongful termination contract case

is  the  employees  reasonable  expectations,  and  that  Kinzels

reasonable expectations did not extend beyond the two-week notice

of  termination  period to which he was entitled  as  an  at-will


          In  reply, Kinzel argues that if at-will employees were

limited  to  two  weeks severance pay on claims  for  retaliatory

discharge this would actually encourage employers to fire at-will

employees  who reported to OSH; the consequences to the  employer

would be slight and the incentive to be rid of a gadfly would  be

great.   Kinzel also contends that in virtually every state  that

          has considered the issue, employer retaliation for filing a

safety-related complaint is considered a tort, that  the  measure

of  damages for the tortious discharge of an at-will employee  is

based  on the employees expectation of continued employment,  and

relevant  to this is the employees past history with the company.

He  notes  that he had worked for Discovery for nearly six  years

and thus his expectation of continued employment could not fairly

be limited to two weeks.

          Discovery is correct that this issue is not grounds for

reversal.  It relates to damages only, and the jury returned a no-

liability  verdict.  But since the verdict must  be  reversed  on

other  grounds,  we believe that it is advisable to  address  the

issue briefly for guidance upon retrial.

          In  Reed  v.  Municipality  of  Anchorage  an  employee

alleged  that he had been fired in retaliation for filing  a  job

safety  complaint.27  We held that the whistleblower statute,  AS

18.60.089,  does not confer a private cause of action,  but  that

the  employee  had  a  common  law  remedy  for  his  retaliatory

discharge   claim.28   He  alleged  that  his   termination   for

whistleblowing was a violation of the covenant of good faith  and

fair  dealing  that  is  implied in employment  contracts.29   We

agreed.   In so ruling we did not imply that the employees  claim

was  not also a tort claim.  The employee apparently only  sought

recognition  of  his  claim  as one  sounding  in  contract.   In

reaching our conclusion that AS 18.60.089 did not preclude a suit

for  retaliatory  discharge  we noted  that  our  conclusion  was

similar to the conclusion reached by the New Jersey Supreme Court

in  Cerracchio  v.  Alden Leeds, Inc.,30 which permitted  a  tort

action to recover damages based upon [the employees] discharge in

violation of the public policy of this state . . . .31

          In  ARCO  Alaska, Inc. v. Akers the issue  was  whether

this state will permit tort recovery when the implied covenant of

good faith and fair dealing is breached in an employment contract

and the breach violates no explicit public policy.32  We answered

          this question in the negative.  But we specifically stated that

we  were  not  deciding whether a tort claim could be  maintained

where a discharge violated an explicit public policy.33

          In   Central  Bering  Sea  Fishermen's  Association  v.

Anderson  an  employee with a one-year contract brought  a  claim

for,  among other theories, constructive retaliatory discharge.34

We  did not indicate whether we considered this claim to sound in

tort or contract.  We held that damages should be limited to  the

unexpired  term of the contract, citing the normal  rule  that  a

wrongfully discharged employee is entitled to the total amount of

the agreed upon salary for the unexpired term of his employment.35

We  recognized that cases may exist where the specific term of an

employment contract should not limit lost earnings damages.36  But

we  held that the employees claim in Anderson was not such a case

because  the  employee  was to occupy a new  position  in  a  new

company created by a new government program, allocating shares in

a volatile industry.37

          In  the  present  case violations  of  explicit  public

policies  protection of whistleblowers who file safety complaints

or  workers  who file workers compensation claims  are alleged.38

In these circumstances we believe that it is appropriate to allow

a  tort remedy to more effectively deter prohibited conduct.   We

thus  join  the numerous authorities that have so  ruled.39   The

parties  have  only  touched on what the appropriate  measure  of

damages for lost wages would be for the tortious discharge  of  a

whistleblower.  We decline to attempt a definitive ruling on this

subject  based  on the briefing before us.  Instead,  this  is  a

subject that should be addressed on remand.

     3.   First Defamation Claim Against Hart Crowser

          Kinzel  brought defamation claims against Hart  Crowser

based  on two different statements made by Craig Martin.  One  of

the  claims  was dismissed on summary judgment, while  the  other

claim was tried and the jury found in favor of Hart Crowser.   We

discuss here the summary judgment decision as to the first claim.

          We review grants of summary judgment de novo and in the

light most favorable to the non-moving party.40  Summary judgment

is  upheld if the evidence presents no genuine issue of  material

fact and the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter  of

law.41   The  party opposing summary judgment need not  establish

that  it  will ultimately prevail at trial, but only  that  there

exists a genuine issue of fact to be litigated.42

          Kinzel  claims  as error the superior courts  grant  of

summary  judgment  for Hart Crowser on Kinzels  first  defamation

claim.   Kinzel asserts that Hart Crowsers Martin made defamatory

statements  about Kinzel in an e-mail to Kyle Brown.  The  e-mail


          In  light of the issues that we have  had  to
          deal   with   during   the   8   Car   Header
          installation, I think that it would be better
          if  you  didnt  have Jeff up here.   The  air
          sparge  line issue (not installing the  black
          iron  pipe)  was apparently done  during  the
          last  few days that he was here and I  wonder
          if  it  was  deliberate.  Like to  hear  your
          thoughts on the subject.  (Emphasis added.)
          In  ruling, the superior court did not give reasons for

granting  Hart  Crowsers  motion for  summary  judgment.   Kinzel

speculates  that the basis of the ruling was that  the  statement

was  protected  opinion speech, and argues  that  a  fact-opinion

dichotomy is misguided.  Hart Crowser argues that there  are  two

legitimate bases upon which the court could have ruled:  (1)  the

statement  was  incapable  of being  proven  false,  or  (2)  the

statement was privileged.

          Kinzel  argues  that a statement is  defamatory  if  it

implies  underlying factual knowledge, even if  it  is  allegedly

expressed  as an opinion.  Kinzel thus anticipates Hart  Crowsers

defense  that expressions of opinion are always protected speech.

In  dealing with the fact/opinion distinction, we are  guided  by

the  United  States Supreme Court in Milkovich v. Lorain  Journal

Co.43 and our own opinion in Sands v. Living Word Fellowship.44

          In  Milkovich,  the  United States  Supreme  Court  was

          concerned with a common misinterpretation of dicta in one of its

earlier cases, Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc.45  Some courts asserted

that  Gertz  stood for the proposition that opinion could   never

qualify as defamation.46  But as Milkovich explained:

          we  do not think this passage from Gertz  was
          intended  to  create  a wholesale  defamation
          exemption for anything that might be  labeled
          opinion.     Not   only   would    such    an
          interpretation be contrary to the  tenor  and
          context  of  the passage, but it  would  also
          ignore  the fact that expressions of  opinion
          may  often  imply an assertion  of  objective
          In  Sands  we  acknowledged  Milkovich  and  Gertz  and

determined that the real distinction is not between opinions  and

facts, but between statements represented as expressions of ideas

and statements purporting to represent facts:

          The   First   Amendment  bars   actions   for
          defamation  where  the  allegedly  defamatory
          statements  are  expressions  of  ideas   and
          cannot  reasonably be interpreted as  stating
          actual  facts about an individual. Milkovich,
          497  U.S. at 20; see Gertz, 418 U.S. at  339.
          If  the  context demonstrates to the audience
          that  the speaker is not purporting to  state
          or imply actual, known facts, then the speech
          is protected by the First Amendment.[48]
This interpretation is supported by the Restatement of Torts49 and


          The Seventh Circuit has stated, if it is plain that the

speaker  is  expressing a subjective view, an  interpretation,  a

theory,  conjecture, or surmise, rather than claiming  to  be  in

possession of objectively verifiable facts, the statement is  not

actionable.51  The First Circuit has further explained that  some

statements  are protected opinion speech not because  [they  are]

vague or judgmental but because [they are] speculative:

          The  test,  admittedly a very crude  one,  is
          whether  the statement is properly understood
          as   purely  speculation  or,  alternatively,
          implies  that  the  speaker  or  writer   has
          concrete  facts that confirm or underpin  the
          truth  of  the speculation. Levin v.  McPhee,
          119 F.3d 189, 197 (2d Cir. 1997); Restatement
          (Second) of Torts  566, comment (c)  at  173.
          The  former  is  protected  as  opinion;  the
          latter  is taken as an indirect assertion  of
          In  Lyons  v. Globe Newspaper Co. the Supreme  Judicial

Court  of Massachusetts considered whether a newspaper report  on

picketing  outside a political convention defamed  the  picketers

union  when  it  recounted a suspicion that  the  picketers  were

attempting  to  disrupt the convention in order to subvert  rules

which  threatened the candidacy of a politician they supported.53

The court detailed its process in distinguishing between fact and


          The  court must examine the statement in  its
          totality  in  the  context in  which  it  was
          uttered   or   published.   The  court   must
          consider  all  the words used, not  merely  a
          particular  phrase or sentence. In  addition,
          the  court  must  give weight  to  cautionary
          terms  used  by  the  person  publishing  the
          statement.  Finally, the court must  consider
          all  of  the  circumstances  surrounding  the
          statement, including the medium by which  the
          statement is disseminated and the audience to
          which it is published.[54]
The  court  concluded that the article was not defamatory.55   It

found  that the word suspicion . . . plainly cautioned the reader

that the article referred to a theory rather than to facts.56  It

also  noted  that the suspicion was but one of three  alternative

explanations  for the picketers motives, thereby confirming  that

the writer was engaging in speculation.57

          Here,   Martins   language  could  be  interpreted   as

signaling  that he was simply theorizing when he said  I  wonder.

He  also  revealed that he did not consider his  theory  anything

more  than a suspicion when he queried Brown for his own thoughts

on  the  subject.  In its totality, Martins e-mail can reasonably

be  construed  as  nothing  more  than  conjecture.   Under  this

interpretation, Martins language would not be read as a statement

of  fact and did not imply that Martin had actual facts that form

the  basis  for the conjecture.  For these reasons the  statement

          could reasonably be determined as not defamatory.

          On  the  other  hand, in reviewing a  summary  judgment

ruling  we  view  the  record  in  its  entirety,  and  draw  all

reasonable  inferences  in favor of the non-moving  party.58   An

alternative and also reasonable interpretation would be  to  view

Martins June 24 e-mail as insinuating that Kinzel was responsible

for sabotaging the worksite.  Given Martins supervisory position,

he  was  in  a  better position than Brown to  know  the  factual

details of the Car Header installation and air sparge line issue.

For this reason, Martins wonder could reasonably be understood as

having   a   factual  underpinning  and  thus  make  the   e-mail

susceptible to a defamation claim.

          Since one might reasonably interpret the facts here  in

favor  of  Kinzels  defamation claim, we must conclude  that  the

superior  court  erred  in dismissing Kinzels  claim  on  summary

judgment  and  remand  the case for further proceedings  on  this


     4.   Defamation Claim Against Discovery

          Kinzel sued Discovery for defamation arising out of  an

e-mail Kyle Brown wrote to Craig Martin on December 16, 1998:

          Just  for  your  information,  Jeff  [Kinzel]
          filed  a bogus work comp claim (alleged  back
          injury on a different site) a few days  after
          he  left  Fbx  and  has not worked  a  minute
At  trial,  the jury found in favor of Discovery on  this  claim.

The jury could not agree whether the bogus statement was true  or

false,59 but decided that Brown did not know, nor should he  have

reasonably  known, that the statement was false.  Kinzel  appeals

claiming  that his expert witnesses were improperly excluded  and

the jury was erroneously instructed.

          We  conclude that no error was committed concerning the

exclusion  of  expert  witnesses because Kinzel  was  allowed  to

present  expert testimony that his claim was genuine rather  than

bogus.   This  reason  is examined in more  detail  in  the  next

section.   In this section we deal with Kinzels claim  concerning

          the jury instructions.

          Kinzel  leads off by claiming that the jury should  not

have  been  instructed at all as to whether his claim was  bogus.

Instead,  he  claims that he was entitled to a  directed  verdict

that his claim was not bogus.

          Discovery does not counter this argument other than  to

say  that  it  is  too cursory and therefore has been  abandoned.

Kinzels  argument  on this point is cursory.  But  he  makes  the

essential  point  in  his opening brief that  Discovery  did  not

contradict  the  validity of his claim, and this  appears  to  be


          Although  Kinzel may have been entitled to  a  directed

verdict instructing the jury that Browns statement that his claim

was  bogus was false, the error was harmless.  The jurys  finding

that  Brown  did  not  act negligently in  making  the  statement

renders  the error concerning failing to direct a verdict  as  to

the  falsity  of  the statement irrelevant.  Fault  amounting  at

least  to  negligence  is an essential element  of  a  defamation

claim.60   Since it was found not to exist, the claim necessarily


          Kinzel  also  claims  that an instruction  on  duty  to

investigate  was requested but refused.  He claims  that  without

such  investigation  Brown  could  not  be  said  to  have  acted

reasonably.  Since a person who makes an unprivileged  defamatory

statement  that is false is liable unless he reasonably  believes

it  to be true, an instruction explaining that such a person  has

an  obligation to use due care to ascertain the truth or  falsity

of  his  statement  might  have been  appropriate.   But  Kinzels

briefing  on  this point is inadequate.  He has not  demonstrated

that the instruction he offered is a correct statement of the law

or  that  the  instructions given by the court were erroneous  or


     5.   Exclusion of Medical Testimony Regarding the Nature  of
          Kinzels Back Injuries
          Kinzel   argues  that  the  court  erred  by  excluding

          evidence as to the nature of his work-related back injury.  He

claims  that  this evidence was relevant to show the  falsity  of

Browns  defamatory statement that his workers compensation  claim

was  bogus.   Further he contends that the evidence  should  have

been  admitted to rebut evidence that his injury was  feigned  in

order to develop claims against Discovery and Hart Crowser.

          But  the  sequence of events at the trial convinces  us

that  the  court  did  not  err.  The  court  initially  excluded

detailed evidence of Kinzels back injury based on the courts view

that  he  could  not recover in the present case for  the  injury

because   of   the  exclusive  remedy  clause  of   the   workers

compensation act.  The evidence was offered initially  by  Kinzel

only  on  the question of damages, and the court did not  err  in

excluding it on relevancy grounds based on this offer.  Later  in

the  trial Kinzel argued that the evidence was important  to  his

defamation  claim  to show that the falsity of  Browns  statement

that  his  workers  compensation claim  was  bogus.   After  much

argument  the  trial court correctly ruled that the testimony  of

Dr.  Howard  as  to  the  nature of  Kinzels  injuries  would  be

admitted.  Dr. Howard testified that in his opinion Kinzel had  a

valid workers compensation claim.  Dr. Howard also testified that

if  Brown  had  consulted with a physician as to whether  Kinzels

claim was valid or bogus, a reasonable physician would have  said

that  it  was  a valid claim.  Kinzel did not seek  to  introduce

additional evidence as to his injury after this testimony.

          Subsequent  to  Dr.  Howards testimony,  evidence  that

Kinzel  had  been  planning  a  lawsuit  was  presented  by   the

defendants.   Once the evidence was presented Kinzel  could  have

moved to introduce evidence of the nature and seriousness of  his

back injury in order to rebut the defense position that his was a

trumped-up  claim.  But he appears not to have done this.   Under

the  circumstances, we can identify no ruling by the trial  court

that was erroneous.

     6.   Interference with Contract Claim Against  Hart Crowser

          Discovery removed Kinzel from the Fort Wainwright  site

at  the specific request of Hart Crowsers Martin.  Discovery then

reassigned Kinzel an arduous job,  which he claims was  meant  to

be  punitive  and  was an effort to force him  to  resign.   Soon

thereafter  he  injured  his  back  and  left  work.   In   early

September, Kinzel was fired by Discovery.

          In  his  complaint,  Kinzel alleged  that  Martin  made

false,  defamatory,  and otherwise harmful statements  to  Brown,

thereby  inveigl[ing],  encourag[ing] and extort[ing]  plaintiffs

employer  to  get rid of and discharge plaintiff.   This,  Kinzel

asserted, amounted to an improper interference with his Discovery

employment contract by Hart Crowser.

          Hart  Crowser moved for summary judgment on this issue,

arguing that Kinzel had been terminated by his employer Discovery

for  reasons wholly unrelated to the Hart Crowser project at Fort

Wainwright.  Attached to this motion was a sworn  affidavit  from

Brown.  Brown attested that:

               I   was   solely  responsible  for   the
          decision   to  assign  Mr.  Kinzel   to   the
          Glennallen work site. . . .  Hart Crowser had
          no input in my decision . . . .  Furthermore,
          my  decision  to  assign Mr.  Kinzel  to  the
          Glennallen  job  as  opposed  to  some  other
          project  was  in  no way influenced  by  Hart
          Crowsers  request that Mr. Kinzel be  removed
          from the Ft. Wainwright job.
Brown  further insisted that Kinzel would have been removed  from

the  Wainwright  site within a week anyway  since  that  job  was

nearing completion.  He concluded, [a]fter Mr. Kinzel was removed

from  the  Ft. Wainwright project Hart Crowser had no involvement

in any aspect of Mr. Kinzels employment.

          In  his opposition motion, Kinzel attempted to link his

efforts  to improve safety at the Fort Wainwright site  with  his

eventual   termination.    He  accused   Martin   of    seriously

undermining Kinzels position at Discovery by means of a series of

damaging  and  at times defamatory e-mails.  This,  according  to

Kinzel,  led to his removal from Fort Wainwright and his eventual


            Prior  to  trial  the  superior  court  granted  Hart

Crowsers   motion  for  summary  judgment  on  this   intentional

interference with contract claim.  The court gave no reasons  for

its  decision.   Kinzel claims that there are material  facts  in

dispute as to whether Hart Crowser interfered with his employment

at Discovery.

          To prevail on an intentional interference with contract

claim,  a plaintiff must prove:  (1) the existence of a contract;

(2) the defendant was aware of the contract; (3) the contract was

breached;  (4)  the  defendants conduct was  the  cause  of  that

breach;  (5) the damages; and (6) the defendants conduct was  not


          We have recognized that this tort applies to terminable

at-will contracts:

          though  a contract is terminable at  will,  a
          claim of unjustifiable interference can still
          be made, for (t)he wrong for which the courts
          may    give   redress   includes   also   the
          procurement of the termination of a  contract
          which  otherwise would have (been)  continued
          in effect.[63]
          Hart  Crowser points out that many of Kinzels arguments

are inappropriate because they refer to trial testimony.  In this

discussion we only consider facts available to the trial court at

the  time of its ruling,64 but we also note that the trial  court

had  a  duty  to  examine  the  existing  record  (including  the

aforementioned  e-mails) in its entirety before determining  that

no genuine issue of material fact existed.65

          Hart  Crowser claims that Kinzel presented no  evidence

in  his  opposition to Hart Crowsers motion for summary  judgment

demonstrating  that  Hart Crowser, and specifically  Martin,  had

induced  Discovery to terminate Kinzel.  It further  claims  that

the  only  relevant evidence presented to the superior court  was

the affidavit of Brown, confirming that Kinzel was terminated for

reasons  particular  to  Discovery and wholly  unrelated  to  the

          project at Fort Wainwright and Hart Crowser.  But the e-mails

between  Martin and Brown, when viewed in a light most  favorable

to Kinzel,66 show that Martin was responsible for Kinzels firing.

          In  a  June 24 e-mail Martin comments to Brown that  it

would  be  better  if you didnt have Jeff up  here.   He  further

insinuates  that  Kinzel  was  responsible  for  sabotaging   the

worksite.   Martins subsequent e-mails demonstrate a  pattern  of

attempts at undermining Kinzels desirability as an employee:

          I  think it is very unwise to have these guys
          complaining to everyone they meet  about  the
          unsafe  work  conditions  that  Hart  Crowser
          forces  them to work under . . . one  of  our
          clients [might not find it humorous].
          We  will give Jeff (or whoever is up here) [a
          group of tasks to accomplish].
          TOP  THREE WHINES OF THE WEEK [all mentioning
          Jeff Kinzel].
          I  have grave concerns about Jeff doing  good
          work at a reasonable productive level at this
          Brown  eventually  recalled Kinzel  from  the  worksite

after  Martin  asked that Kinzel be removed.  When  Martin  asked

Brown to remove Kinzel from the site, Brown asked for an official

reason, stating that it would be helpful.  Martins reply did  not

mention  Kinzels  lack of productivity, or whining  about  health

hazards, or any other past complaint.  Rather than these  themes,

Martin  accused  Kinzel  of not wearing a  respirator.   Further,

since  respirators  were no longer required by  the  time  Martin

responded, he also referred to other Health & Safety concerns  in

regards  to  Jeff.  Despite not specifying what  these  were,  he

stated  that he would have no choice but to shut down the job  if

Kinzel  were not removed:  My only other option will be  to  shut

the  project  down,  if  we cannot ensure  safety  at  the  site.

Removing Jeff from the site is your decision.  Given the lack  of

any  specified  present safety concerns and  Martins  history  of

finding  fault  with Kinzel, the totality of the  evidence  casts

doubt on the veracity of the official reason.

          Hart  Crowser  nevertheless insists that  causation  is

impossible to prove in this case.  It argues that, though a lapse

in  time  between interference and termination is  not  fatal  to

these  claims, what is fatal is when intervening events  make  it

highly  unlikely that  defendants conduct could have  caused  the

termination.   Hart  Crowser  claims  that  there  were   several

intervening occurrences prior to Kinzels termination all of which

demonstrate  a  separate cause of termination,  such  as  Kinzels

injury and his failure to return to work.

          But  the e-mails demonstrate that the safety complaints

put  a  strain  on  the  relationship between  Hart  Crowser  and

Discovery.    Brown,   anxious  to  maintain  business,   quickly

expressed  a  desire to patch things up as soon as possible.   As

early  as  July,  just  after  Kinzel  was  recalled  from   Fort

Wainwright,  Brown e-mailed Martin, I assume we might take up all

that  at a later time when the wound is not so fresh.  On  August

13  Brown further urges, I would hope that its not something that

you  hold  against  me forever.  This tends  to  show  that  Hart

Crowser  still  had  an  influence over Discovery  after  Kinzels

removal  from  the  Fort Wainwright job but before  his  eventual

termination in September.  In subsequent e-mails of December  16,

1998, and March 23, 1999, Brown was still making amends to Martin

for Kinzels complaints.  Although the e-mails do not conclusively

prove  that  Discoverys  termination of  Kinzel  was  based  upon

Martins complaints to Brown, they clearly  raise a genuine  issue

of material fact on that point.

          It  is  also  a question of fact whether Hart  Crowsers

actions  against  Kinzel were privileged.   [W]here  there  is  a

direct  financial interest in a contract, the essential  question

in  determining  if  interference is  justified  is  whether  the

person's conduct is motivated by a desire to protect his economic

interest,  or whether it is motivated by spite, malice,  or  some

other improper objective.67  Here there is no question that  Hart

Crowser  as  contractor had a direct financial  interest  in  the

          relationship between its subcontractor Discovery and Kinzel, so

long as Kinzel was employed on the Fort Wainwright project.   But

the  question  remains whether Martins e-mails were  intended  to

achieve  an  improper  objective such as  removal  of  Kinzel  in

retaliation  for Kinzels safety complaints.  If so, no  claim  of

privilege could be maintained.

          In conclusion, because material facts are in dispute as

to  causation and privilege, the superior courts grant of summary

judgment cannot be sustained.


          Kinzel  was  entitled to a mixed-motive instruction  on

his  claim for retaliatory discharge against Discovery.   Summary

judgment  was  improperly granted in favor  of  Hart  Crowser  on

Kinzels  claims for defamation and intentional interference  with

contract  rights.  The judgments in favor of Discovery  and  Hart

Crowser  must  therefore be reversed.  This case is remanded  for

further  proceedings  concerning Kinzels  claims  of  retaliatory

discharge,  defamation  (against Hart Crowser),  and  intentional

interference with contract rights.

          REVERSED and REMANDED.

          In the Supreme Court of the State of Alaska

Jeffrey Kinzel and Cheryl Kinzel,              )
                                ) Supreme Court No. S-10190
                                   Appellants, )
                   v.           )            Order
                                )   Petition for Rehearing
Discovery Drilling, Inc., et al.,              )
                                    Appellees.  )        Date  of
Order: 06/25/04
Trial Court Case # 3AN-99-10959CI

     Before:   Fabe,  Chief Justice, Matthews, Eastaugh,  Bryner,
               and Carpeneti, Justices.

     On  consideration  of the Petition for  Rehearing  filed  on

     It is Ordered:

     1.   The  Petition for Rehearing is Granted in Part. Changes
          are  made  to pages 7 and 29 of opinion 5796,  but  the
          result is unchanged.

     2.   Opinion No. 5796, issued on 4/16/04, is Withdrawn.

     3.   Opinion  No. 5820 is issued on this date in its  place,
          reflecting the changes.

     4.    The  Petition  for Rehearing is Denied  on  all  other

     Entered by direction of the court.

                                   Clerk of the Appellate Courts

                                   Marilyn May
cc:  Supreme Court Justices
     Judge Michalski
     Trial Court Appeals Clerk
     West Publishing
     Other Publishers


     Marion Kelly
     Wade, Kelly & Sullivan
     733 West 4th Avenue, Suite 200
     Anchorage AK 99501

     Bernard P. Kelly
     Bernard P. Kelly & Assoc
     1007 W 3rd Ave Ste 204
     Anchorage AK 99501

     Paul S Wilcox
     Hughes Thorsness
     550 West Seventh Avenue   #1100
     Anchorage AK 99501

     Harland H McElhany
     Eide, Miller & Pate, PC
     425 G Street, Suite 930
     Anchorage AK 99501

     Phillip J Eide
     Eide, Miller & Pate,  PC
     425  G  Street   #930
     Anchorage AK 99501

     Mary L. Pate
     Eide & Miller
     425 G Street, Suite 930
     Anchorage AK 99501
     1     The  actual date of the letter is unknown.  The letter
is dated August 17, 1998, but it refers to events in September.

     2    l court err in determining that Kinzel could not recover
damages for his back injury in tort against Discovery?  No, r

     3    The following issues are resolved summarily:

     1.    Did  the  trial court err in determining  that  Kinzel
could  not  recover damages for his back injury in  tort  against
Discovery?  No, recovery of damages for physical injury is barred
by  the  exclusive  remedy provision of the Workers  Compensation
Act,  AS  23.30.055, except for statutory claims  or  intentional

     2.    Did the trial court err in excluding the testimony  of
employee  relations expert Jan Duffy?  No, the courts ruling  was
discretionary and no abuse of discretion has been demonstrated.

     3.    Did the trial court err in excluding the testimony  of
worksite safety expert Dennis Smythe?  No, the courts ruling  was
discretionary and no abuse of discretion has been demonstrated.

     4.   Was Kinzel substantially prejudiced during the trial by
various  interjections  made by the  court  during  his  counsels
examination  of  witnesses  and by imposing  time  restraints  on
counsel?  No, the actions complained of were permissible  efforts
to  bring the trial to a conclusion within a reasonable time  and
were neither unfair nor prejudicial.

     5.    Did the trial court err in instructing the jury as  to
the  defamation claim against Hart Crowser?  As the  instructions
in  question  were not objected to and they are not plain  error,
this argument has been waived.

     6.    Did  the trial court err in granting summary  judgment
dismissing  Kinzels  constructive discharge claim?   No,  because
Kinzel did not resign, he was fired.

     4    This instruction was based on an explanation in Holland
v.  Union  Oil  Co.  of California, Inc., 993 P.2d  1026  (Alaska

     5    970 P.2d 906 (Alaska 1999).

     6    Id. at 921.

     7    797 F.2d 727, 730-31 (9th Cir. 1986).

     8    Veco, 970 P.2d at 919.

     9    Id.

     10    Id.

     11    Id. at 919 n.29.  The mixed-motive instruction offered
by Kinzel provided in relevant part:
               To  prevail  on his mixed-motive  claim,
          Kinzel need not establish that his complaints
          constituted the sole motivation or  even  the
          primary  motivation  for Discovery  Drillings
          action.  Plaintiff must prove that it is more
          likely  than not that his complaints  were  a
          causal factor in his termination, even though
          Discovery   Drilling  may  also   have   been
          motivated by other factors.
               If  you find that Kinzel has proved that
          his    OSHA    complaint    and/or    workers
          compensation   claim   was/were    motivating
          factor(s) in his termination, then  you  must
          find  for Kinzel on his mixed motive wrongful
          termination claim, unless you also find  that
          Discovery Drilling has proved that it is more
          likely  than not that it would have made  the
          same  decision, if Kinzel had not  complained
          to  OSHA  or  filed  a  workers  compensation
          claim.   If you find that Discovery  Drilling
          would  have made the same employment decision
          if  Kinzel  had not made his complaint,  then
          you  must find for Discovery Drilling on  the
          mixed motive wrongful termination claim.
               The  fact  that Kinzel was  an  at  will
          employee  who  could  be  terminated  without
          cause  does not mean that Discovery  Drilling
          could  terminate Kinzel because he complained
          to  OSHA  or  filed  a  workers  compensation
     12    17 P.3d 40 (Alaska 2000).

     13    Id. at 44 (citations omitted).

     14    490 U.S. 228 (1989).

     15    Ostrowski v. Atlantic Mut. Ins. Cos., 968 F.2d 171, 181
(2d Cir. 1992) (quoting  Tyler v. Bethlehem Steel Corp., 958 F.2d
1176, 1185 (2d Cir. 1992)).

     16    Id. at 182.

     17     Id. at 182-83 (quoting Price Waterhouse, 490 U.S.  at

     18     See  AS 18.60.089(a) (prohibiting retaliation  by  an
employer against an employee who has filed as OSH complaint);  AS
23.30.247(a) (prohibiting discriminating against an employee  who
has filed a claim for workers compensation).

     19    Era, 17 P.3d at 44.

     20    Id. at 45.

     21    Id.

     22    Id.

     23    Ostrowski, 968 F.2d at 182.

     24     See Radabaugh v. Zip Feed Mills, Inc., 997 F.2d  444,
449 (8th Cir. 1993).  The Radabaugh opinion in discussing EEOC v.
Alton Packaging Corp., 901 F.2d 920 (11th Cir. 1990), noted:

          The  court  rejected  the employers  argument
          that it was significant that [a comment by  a
          decisionmaker that he would not hire  blacks]
          referred  to  hiring  rather  than  promoting
          blacks,    reasoning   that   the   statement
          indicated   a  decidedly  negative   attitude
          toward black people on the part of one of the
          people  responsible for promotions  and  that
          there  was  no  reason to  think  that  [this
          attitude differed] from hiring to promotion.
997 F.2d at 449.

     25    Instruction 25 as given by the superior court.

     26     We agree with Discovery that there was not sufficient
evidence  to  justify  a  mixed-motive  instruction  relating  to
Kinzels filing of a workers compensation claim.

     27    782 P.2d 1155 (Alaska 1989).

     28    Id. at 1159.

     29    Id. at 1158.

     30    538 A.2d 1292 (1988).

     31    Reed, 782 P.2d at 1159.

     32    753 P.2d 1150, 1153 (Alaska 1988).

     33    Id.

     34    54 P.3d 271 (Alaska 2002).

     35    Id. at 278 (quoting Skagway City Sch. Bd. v. Davis, 543
P.2d 218, 225 (Alaska 1975)).

     36     Id.  As support for this proposition we cited a  case
where  lost  earnings under a specified-term  contract  were  not
limited to the term where there had been a long series of similar
contracts.  Id. at n.21 (citing Allen v. Cornish & Carey, 1997 WL
195433, at *6-*7 (N.D. Cal., Apr.11, 1997)).

     37    Id. at 279.

     38     See  AS  18.60.089(a),  which  prohibits  retribution
against discharging or discriminating against an employee because
the  employee  has filed a safety complaint, and AS 23.30.247(a),
prohibiting retaliation for filing a workers compensation claim.

     39     Many  states  have held that the  termination  of  an
employee  in  violation of fundamental public  policy  principles
gives rise to a tort remedy.  See, e.g., Fielder v. Southco, Inc.
of  South Carolina, 699 F. Supp. 577, 578 (W.D. Va. 1988) (public
policy  doctrine  enforced  in claim for  wrongful  discharge  in
retaliation  for  filing sexual harassment claim);  Cabesuela  v.
Browning-Ferris Indus. of Calif., Inc., 80 Cal. Rptr. 2d  60,  63
(Cal.  App.  1998)  (tort remedy available to  employee  who  was
terminated for protesting unsafe working conditions);  Hobson  v.
McLean Hosp. Corp., 522 N.E.2d 975, 977 (Mass. 1988) (tort  claim
available to employee who was discharged for enforcing state  and
municipal safety laws); Cerracchio v. Alden Leeds, Inc., 538 A.2d
1292  (N.J. Super. 1988) (tort remedy available for employee  who
was  terminated for filing OSHA and workers compensation claims);
Nees v. Hocks, 536 P.2d 512 (Or. 1975) (tort claim recognized for
employee who was allegedly discharged for serving on jury  duty).
For  a  more  thorough  analysis on the jurisdictions  that  have
adopted the public policy exception, and particularly those  that
have  utilized  the exception in the whistleblower  context,  see
Daniel   P.  Westman,  Whistleblowing:  The  Law  of  Retaliatory
Discharge 198-211 (App. D) (1991).

     40    Beilgard v. State, 896 P.2d 230, 233 (Alaska 1995); see
also Ellis v. City of Valdez, 686 P.2d 700, 702 (Alaska 1984).

     41    Ellis, 686 P.2d at 702; Alaska R. Civ. P. 56(c).

     42     Alaska Rent-A-Car, Inc. v. Ford Motor Co.,  526  P.2d
1136, 1138 (Alaska 1974).

     43    497 U.S. 1 (1990).

     44    34 P.3d 955 (Alaska 2001).

     45    418 U.S. 323, 339-340 (1974).  The passage in question

          Under  the First Amendment there is  no  such
          thing as a false idea.  However pernicious an
          opinion   may   seem,  we  depend   for   its
          correction  not on the conscience  of  judges
          and  juries but on the competition  of  other
          ideas.  But there is no constitutional  value
          in false statements of fact.
     46     Milkovich, 497 U.S. at 18 (citing Cianci v. New Times
Publg Co., 639 F.2d 54, 61 (2d Cir. 1980)).

     47    Id. (citing Cianci, 639 F.2d at 62 n.10).

     48    Sands, 34 P.3d at 960.

     49    See Restatement (Second) of Torts  566 (1977).

     50     W. Page Keeton, et al., Prosser and Keeton on the Law
of  Torts  113A, at 814-15 (5th ed. 1984).  Keeton argues that  a
distinction should be made between an evaluative-type opinion and
the  deductive type, the latter actually imputing facts that  can
be proven false and thus potentially actionable.  Id.

     51    Haynes v. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 8 F.3d 1222, 1227 (7th

     52     Gray  v. St. Martin's Press, Inc., 221 F.3d 243,  250
(1st Cir. 2000).

     53    612 N.E.2d 1158, 1160 (Mass. 1993).

     54    Id. at 1162 (citations omitted).

     55    Id.

     56    Id.

     57    Id.

     58     See American Restaurant Group v. Clark, 889 P.2d 595,
597-98  (Alaska  1995); Bennett v. Hedglin,  995  P.2d  668,  671
(Alaska 2000).

     59     The  jury wrote opposite the question whether  Browns
statement as to the bogus claim was false:  (4-8) no- answer.

     60     French v. Jadon, Inc., 911 P.2d 20, 32 (Alaska  1996)
(To  prevail on a defamation claim, a plaintiff has to  establish
(1)  a  false  and  defamatory  statement;  (2)  an  unprivileged
publication  to a third party; (3) fault amounting  at  least  to
negligence on the part of the publisher; and (4) the existence of
either per se actionability or special harm.).

     61    See Great Divide Ins. Co. v. Carpenter ex rel. Reed, 79
P.3d  599,  608 n.10 (Alaska 2003) (Points that are  inadequately
briefed   are   considered  waived.);  and   State   v.   O'Neill
Investigations,  Inc., 609 P.2d 520, 528 (When, in  the  argument
portion  of  a brief, a major point has been given no  more  than
cursory  statement, we will not consider it further.  Failure  to
argue a point constitutes an abandonment of it.).

     62     See  Briggs  v. Newton, 984 P.2d 1113,  1119  (Alaska

     63     Alyeska Pipeline Serv. Co. v. Aurora Air Serv., Inc.,
604  P.2d  1090, 1093 (Alaska 1979) (quoting Smith v. Ford  Motor
Co., 221 S.E.2d 282, 290-91 (N.C. 1976)).

     64    See Kaiser v. Sakata, 40 P.3d 800, 805 (Alaska 2002).

     65    American Restaurant Group v. Clark, 889 P.2d 595, 597-
98 (Alaska 1995).

     66     Ellis  v.  City of Valdez, 686 P.2d 700, 702  (Alaska
1984);  see  also  Beilgard v. State, 896 P.2d 230,  233  (Alaska

     67    RAN Corp. v. Hudesman, 823 P.2d 646, 649 (Alaska 1991).