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You can search the entire site. or go to the recent opinions, or the chronological or subject indices. McLaughlin v. Okumura (12/11/2009) sp-6440

McLaughlin v. Okumura (12/11/2009) sp-6440

     Notice:   This opinion is subject to correction  before
     publication  in  the  Pacific  Reporter.   Readers  are
     requested to bring errors to the attention of the Clerk
     of  the  Appellate  Courts, 303  K  Street,  Anchorage,
     Alaska 99501, phone (907) 264-0608, fax (907) 264-0878,
     e-mail corrections@appellate.courts.state.ak.us.


            THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF ALASKA

LORIMER L. and PAMELA F. )
McLAUGHLIN, ) Supreme Court No. S- 12708/12777
)
Appellants, ) Superior Court No. 4FA-92-01039 CI
)
v. ) O P I N I O N
)
MASAYOSHI OKUMURA, ) No. 6440 December 11, 2009
)
Appellee. )
)
          Appeal  from the Superior Court of the  State
          of    Alaska,   Fourth   Judicial   District,
          Fairbanks, Mark I. Wood, Judge.

          Appearances:  Robert  John,  Law  Office   of
          Robert   John,  Fairbanks,  for   Appellants.
          Masayoshi Okumura, pro se, Tokyo, Japan.

          Before:   Fabe,   Chief  Justice,   Eastaugh,
          Carpeneti, Winfree, and Christen, Justices.

          FABE, Chief Justice.


I.   INTRODUCTION
          Upon  learning that judgment debtors Lorimer and Pamela
McLaughlin  were about to receive settlement proceeds related  to
the  malpractice of their former attorney Arthur Robson, judgment
creditor Masayoshi Okumura renewed his efforts to execute on  his
fraud judgment against them after nine years of inactivity.   The
superior  court  granted  Okumuras  motion  for  a  new  writ  of
execution,  allowing him to execute on the McLaughlins settlement
proceeds.   Attorney  Michael  MacDonald,  who  claimed  to  have
assisted  in obtaining those settlement proceeds, moved  to  have
his  40%  contingency fee subtracted from the proceeds  prior  to
Okumuras  levy, and the superior court denied his  request.   The
superior  court  also refused to prevent Okumura  from  executing
against  a  piece  of real estate owned by the McLaughlins.   The
McLaughlins appeal each of these three decisions.
          Because Okumuras reasons for not executing sooner  were
sufficient,  we affirm the superior courts grant of Okumuras  new
writ  of  execution.  For the same reason, we affirm the superior
courts  subsequent refusal to prevent Okumura from  executing  on
the   debtors  real  estate.   And  because  MacDonald  has   not
adequately  demonstrated  that he has  a  claim  to  40%  of  the
McLaughlins  settlement  proceeds, we also  affirm  the  superior
courts denial of his requested fee.
II.  FACTS AND PROCEEDINGS
     A.   Background Facts and Prior Proceedings1
          Lorimer and Pamela McLaughlin purchased a historic gold
camp  near Fairbanks in 1982 and lost title to it via foreclosure
in  1990  due  to  malpractice by their attorney, Arthur  Robson.
Believing  that  they  still had viable title,  the  McLaughlins,
still  represented  by Robson, contracted with  foreign  investor
Masayoshi Okumura to build an Aurorium facility on the land where
tourists  could view the Northern Lights.  Apparently  acting  on
Robsons  advice, the McLaughlins did not tell Okumura  about  the
foreclosure.   The  land was repossessed  and  Okumura  sued  the
McLaughlins.   Robson defended the McLaughlins without  revealing
his  own  culpability,  and  in 1993  Okumura  obtained  a  total
judgment of $1,008,536.05 against the McLaughlins for fraud.
          Still represented by Robson, the McLaughlins filed  for
Chapter  7  bankruptcy in 1993.  The McLaughlins debt to  Okumura
was  not  discharged  in their bankruptcy  case  because  it  was
considered to have resulted from fraud.2  Okumura has  levied  on
his  judgment against the McLaughlins, but the judgment  has  not
yet been entirely satisfied.
          While  the  McLaughlins bankruptcy  case  was  pending,
Okumura  sued  Robson for his role in the botched Aurorium  deal.
Robson  was  defended in that suit by law firm Hughes, Thorsness,
Gantz,  Powell & Brundin (Hughes Thorsness).  It would  later  be
alleged that in the course of its representation of Robson and in
furtherance  of  Robsons  fraudulent  scheme  to  avoid  personal
liability,  Hughes  Thorsness prepared for  Robsons  signature  a
pleading  in  the  McLaughlins bankruptcy  case  withdrawing  the
McLaughlins  motion  to  clarify  that  they  still  owned  legal
malpractice  claims against Robson.3  This withdrawal  was  later
reversed and the bankruptcy court held that Robson could be  sued
by  the McLaughlins and their bankruptcy estate, but this did not
occur  until  after Robson had already settled with  Okumura  for
$900,000 and thereby exhausted his liability insurance.  Okumuras
judgment  against the McLaughlins was deemed partially  satisfied
and reduced by $900,000 due to Okumuras settlement with Robson.
          The    McLaughlins   subsequently   sued   Robson   for
malpractice and fraud, subject to a court-approved agreement that
any  recovery  would  be  split evenly  between  them  and  their
bankruptcy estate.  Attorney Michael MacDonald pursued the  claim
under  a  contingency fee agreement.  The McLaughlins obtained  a
$3,571,429.33 judgment against Robson in 2001, which we  affirmed
          on appeal in 2002.4
          Robsons   liability  insurance  already   having   been
exhausted, the McLaughlins executed on Robsons assets,  including
his  unlitigated  claims for contribution  against  attorney  Ken
Lougee  and law firm Hughes Thorsness.5  The McLaughlins asserted
that Robson had claims for contribution against Lougee and Hughes
Thorsness  for the role they allegedly played in the  malpractice
and  fraud  that ultimately resulted in the McLaughlins  judgment
against Robson.
          Accordingly,  the  McLaughlins  and  their   bankruptcy
trustee  sued Lougee and Hughes Thorsness as assignees of Robsons
claims for contribution.  Attorney Michael Flanigan pursued these
claims  under  a  40% contingency fee agreement approved  by  the
bankruptcy  court.  Following a dismissal, appeal, reversal,  and
remand,6  in  2006  the  parties agreed  to  a  settlement.   The
bankruptcy trustee sought permission from the bankruptcy court to
settle  the  claims  against  Lougee  and  Hughes  Thorsness  for
$160,000.  Forty percent of the settlement proceeds were to go to
Flanigan pursuant to his fee agreement, with the remainder to  be
split evenly between the McLaughlins and their bankruptcy estate.
The bankruptcy court approved this arrangement in December 2006.
     B.   This Case
          The  current controversy arose when Okumura renewed his
attempts  to collect on his 1993 judgment against the McLaughlins
after  receiving notice of the Lougee settlement  in  late  2006.
Okumura  moved  for  a  new  writ of  execution  and  a  writ  of
attachment  against  the  McLaughlins anticipated  share  of  the
Lougee  settlement proceeds.  Superior Court Judge Mark  I.  Wood
granted Okumuras motion for a writ of execution, which was issued
in  February 2007.  The McLaughlins appeal, arguing that  Okumura
was  not  entitled to a new writ because he had  not  shown  good
cause for his delaying execution on the judgment against them for
more than five years.
          Subsequently,   MacDonald,  who  had  represented   the
McLaughlins  in  their malpractice suit against Robson,  filed  a
motion requesting that 40% of the McLaughlins share of the Lougee
settlement  be released directly to him as attorneys fees  rather
than  being subject to execution by Okumura.  The superior  court
denied this request, and the McLaughlins appeal.
          Finally,  in  May  2007  Okumura attempted  to  execute
against  a piece of real property held by Pamela McLaughlin,  and
the  McLaughlins  moved to quash Okumuras writ of  execution  and
cancel  the  public  sale of the property.   The  superior  court
denied  their  motion  and the McLaughlins appeal,  arguing  once
again  that  Okumura  had  not  shown  good  cause  for  delaying
execution on the judgment against them for more than five  years.
This  appeal,  which was filed separately, was consolidated  with
the appeal of the first two issues.
III. STANDARDS OF REVIEW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The McLaughlins argue that the superior court erred in
allowing Okumura to execute on his judgment against them after
more than five years.  The superior courts decision to allow
execution on a judgment more than five years old is a mixed
question of law and fact.7  On appeal, [q]uestions of law are
reviewed de novo, and [q]uestions of fact are reviewed under the
clearly erroneous standard.8
          The  McLaughlins also contend that the  superior  court
erred in holding that MacDonalds attorneys lien did not apply  to
the  McLaughlins settlement proceeds from the Lougee  litigation.
To  the  extent  that  the resolution of this  issue  depends  on
questions  of fact, we employ the clearly erroneous  standard  of
review.9  But once factual questions are resolved, [t]he question
of  [lien]  priority  is  a legal one,  to  which  we  apply  our
independent judgment, and we will adopt the rule of law  that  is
most persuasive in light of precedent, reason, and policy.10
IV.  DISCUSSION
     A.   The  Superior Court Did Not Err in Granting  Okumura  a
          New Writ of Execution With Which To Collect on His 1993
          Judgment Against the McLaughlins.
          1.   Proceedings
          After receiving notice of the pending Lougee settlement
in  November  2006,  Okumura, whose  1993  judgment  against  the
McLaughlins  had  not  been  fully  satisfied  or  discharged  in
bankruptcy, moved for a renewed writ of execution on the judgment
under  Alaska  Civil  Rule 69(d)(1)11 and a  writ  of  attachment
against   the  McLaughlins  anticipated  share  of   the   Lougee
settlement proceeds under Alaska Civil Rule 69(d)(5).12  Okumuras
original writ of execution had expired, and he apparently had not
executed   on  the  judgment  since  1997,  nine  years  earlier.
Explaining the nine-year delay since his last attempt to  execute
on the judgment, Okumura asserted13 that he had garnished Lorimer
McLaughlins  wages through September 1997 but that  [e]fforts  to
locate  nonexempt  assets of the debtors were unsuccessful  after
that  date  and  he had lost track of the [McLaughlins]  physical
address and whereabouts.
          Both  Flanigan,  who  represented the  McLaughlins  and
their  bankruptcy estate in the Lougee litigation, and MacDonald,
who   pursued  the  McLaughlins  claim  against  Robson,  opposed
Okumuras  attempt to execute.  Through MacDonald, the McLaughlins
contended  that Okumura could not show good cause for  his  nine-
year  delay  in  execution under both Civil Rule 69(d)(1),  which
requires  a judgment creditor in Okumuras position to  state  the
reasons for failure to obtain a writ for a period of five  years,
and  AS  09.35.020, which provides that execution on  a  judgment
after  five  years  may issue only if the court  determines  that
there  are just and sufficient reasons for the failure to  obtain
the  writ of execution within five years.  The McLaughlins argued
that Okumuras failure to execute on his judgment within the five-
year  period  following  his  last execution  was  not  justified
because  during  that  period  he  could  have  levied   on   the
McLaughlins  cause  of  action  against  Robson,  their  judgment
against  Robson, the money they levied from Robson, or the  claim
for  contribution against Lougee and Hughes Thorsness  that  they
levied  from Robson.  They also argued that the equities in  this
case  favored  them  because  Okumura  received  all  of  Robsons
insurance money, some of which should have gone to satisfy  their
malpractice judgment against Robson.
          Okumura   responded,  asserting  that  his   delay   in
execution  was  justified because [f]or all  practical  purposes,
[the  McLaughlins] had no visible presence in Alaska  after  1998
and [a]wareness of litigation and knowledge of tangible assets in
[the  McLaughlins]  possession are not synonymous.   In  February
2007  Superior  Court Judge Mark I. Wood granted Okumuras  motion
for  a  writ of execution.  The federal bankruptcy court released
the  McLaughlins $44,485.33 share of the Lougee settlement to the
clerk  of  the  superior court rather than  to  the  McLaughlins.
Okumuras writ of execution issued on February 13, 2007.
          The  McLaughlins  filed a motion  for  reconsideration,
which  the  superior  court denied in March 2007.   The  superior
court  explained  that  Okumura  had  attempted  to  locate   the
McLaughlins at three different times using the postal service and
that [w]ithout knowledge of their whereabouts, Okumura was unable
to  determine  what, if any assets were available  to  be  levied
under  the  judgment.  It found these to be just  and  sufficient
reasons for Okumuras failure to execute and declined to impose  a
higher  burden  of  proof  on Okumura.  It  further  stated  that
Okumura  cannot be found to have had knowledge of the McLaughlins
court  case  against attorney Robson without some  evidence  that
Okumura was actually aware of the case.
          The  McLaughlins now appeal, arguing that the  superior
court erred in granting Okumuras motion for a writ of execution14
because Okumura did not provide sufficient justification for  his
nine-year   delay  and  because  allowing  execution   would   be
inequitable given the history of this case.
          2.   Executing  on  a judgment after a  lapse  of  five
               years or more
          The  requirements for executing on a judgment  after  a
lapse  of  five years or more are provided in Alaska  Civil  Rule
69(d)   and  AS  09.35.020.   Civil  Rule  69(d)  mandates  that,
[w]henever  a  period  of  five years  shall  elapse  without  an
execution being issued on a judgment, a judgment creditor seeking
to execute must file a motion specifying, among other things, the
reasons for failure to obtain a writ for a period of five  years.
Alaska  Statute  09.35.020, which Civil Rule 69(d)  implements,15
provides:
          When a period of five years has elapsed after
          the   entry   of  judgment  and  without   an
          execution  being issued on the  judgment,  no
          execution  may issue except by order  of  the
          court in which judgment is entered. The court
          shall   grant   the  motion  if   the   court
          determines that there are just and sufficient
          reasons for the failure to obtain the writ of
          execution  within five years after the  entry
          of judgment.
          Alaska  Statute 09.35.020 does not impose a  definitive
statute  of limitations on the execution of judgments but  leaves
the  balancing  of rights and duties between the parties  to  the
discretion  of  the  trial court.16  We have  said  that  [i]f  a
judgment creditor seeks to execute upon a valid judgment after  a
lapse of five years . . . good cause must be demonstrated for the
          delay,17 but also that a creditor may be able to demonstrate any
number  of valid reasons supporting its decision to delay  formal
execution.18
          We  have  found  good  cause for a creditors  delay  in
several  different situations:  where execution would  be  futile
because  no  assets were available to be executed  upon,19  where
there  existed  a high level of animosity between the  parties,20
where  the  debtors  appeal of the judgment at  issue  was  still
ongoing,21 and where the party opposing the execution of judgment
was  in  control of the preconditions to the filing of the motion
to execute.22
          The   McLaughlins rely heavily on Magden v. Alaska  USA
Federal Credit Union.23  In Magden, we affirmed the granting of a
creditors  motion for a writ of execution after  more  than  five
years  because  the  debtor  had  offered  no  evidence  in   her
opposition  that  [during  the  relevant  five-year  period]  she
possessed  any non-exempt assets upon which [the creditor]  could
execute  which  meant  that any attempts  by  [the  creditor]  to
enforce the judgment would have been futile.24  That is, in Magden
we  held that a debtors lack of assets may constitute good  cause
for a creditors delay in execution.
          But  the  McLaughlins take Magden several steps further
by  interpreting it to mean that [i]f there were assets  to  levy
and  they were not levied, then just and sufficient reason[s] for
failure to execute cannot be shown and thus that it was incumbent
on  Okumura  to  prove . . . that the McLaughlins had  no  assets
available for execution during the five-year period.  But such  a
broad  reading of Magden is unwarranted and would be inconsistent
with our statement that a creditor may be able to demonstrate any
number  of valid reasons supporting its decision to delay  formal
execution.25   A debtors lack of assets is not the only  possible
just and sufficient reason for a creditors delay in execution.26
          As  the  superior court recognized when  rejecting  the
McLaughlins  motion  for  reconsideration,  [i]n  any  situation,
whether  assets are available or otherwise, the judgment creditor
need  only  demonstrate  just  and  sufficient  reasons  to   the
satisfaction of the court.
          3.   The  reasons  Okumura presented for his  delay  in
               execution were just and sufficient.
          The  superior  court found that Okumuras  inability  to
locate  the  McLaughlins set out just and sufficient reasons  for
Okumuras failure to levy against any assets.  We agree.
          Okumuras  attorney  stated via affidavit  that  Okumura
executed  on  his judgment against the McLaughlins by  garnishing
Lorimer  McLaughlins wages from 1996 through September 1997,  but
that  efforts  to locate non exempt assets of the  debtors  after
that  were unsuccessful.  Okumuras attorney further claimed  that
[r]equests  through  the postal service  for  a  current  mailing
address  for the debtor[s] [were] unsuccessful [in] 1998  and  in
March  2003 and that [a] later request was returned by the postal
service  indicating that no forwarding address was available  for
the  debtors.  The McLaughlins were eventually personally  served
with  Okumuras writ of execution in Kailua Kona, Hawaii.   Though
Okumura did not present any documentation of his efforts to  find
          the McLaughlins beyond the affidavit of his attorney, the
superior court did not clearly err in finding that Okumura did in
fact try and fail to locate the McLaughlins, who had moved out of
state.   Nor  did  the  superior court err  in  determining  that
Okumuras inability to locate the McLaughlins constituted  a  just
and sufficient reason for his delay in execution.
          The  McLaughlins argue that the superior court  clearly
erred  in  finding that there was insufficient evidence  to  show
that  Okumura  had been aware that the McLaughlins possessed  the
Robson  and  Lougee causes of action.  They contend that  Okumura
cannot show just and sufficient reasons for his delay because  he
failed  to  execute on those assets.  But whether or not  Okumura
was aware that the McLaughlins possessed causes of action, he was
justified  in  waiting  until  tangible  funds  actually   became
available for execution.
          4.   The McLaughlins equitable argument
          The  McLaughlins argue that allowing Okumura to execute
on their settlement proceeds would be unfair because they engaged
in  extensive efforts and thereby brought the [Lougee] litigation
to  fruition. But the fact that a debtor has expended  effort  in
obtaining  funds  does  not  somehow  exempt  those  funds   from
execution  otherwise execution would rarely be possible.
          The  McLaughlins  also argue that allowing  Okumura  to
execute  would  be inequitable because Okumura pocketed  $900,000
from  attorney  Robson through Robsons insurance, some  of  which
should  have  gone  to the McLaughlins.  They  cite  out-of-state
authority  for the proposition that writs of execution should  be
quashed   where  illegalities  or  inequities  disfavor   further
enforcement  of the judgment.27  But where a court exercises  its
equitable power to restrain execution on a judgment, it should be
because  inequity  would arise from execution,  not  because  the
underlying  judgment  is itself inequitable.28   The  McLaughlins
essentially argue that Okumuras judgment against them  is  itself
inequitable because Okumura received Robsons insurance  proceeds.
But  the  proper  way to make such an attack  on  the  underlying
judgment would be through an appeal of that judgment or  a  Civil
Rule 60(b) motion.  More importantly, this issue has already been
litigated  the McLaughlins asked both the superior court and  the
bankruptcy  court  to  declare  Okumuras  judgment  against  them
satisfied following his settlement with Robson, and although  the
superior  court  reduced the judgment, both  courts  declined  to
declare the judgment entirely satisfied.
          Accordingly, we affirm the superior courts decision  to
grant Okumura a new writ of execution.
     B.   The  Superior Court Did Not Err in Allowing Okumura  To
          Execute on a Piece of Pamela McLaughlins Real Property.
          1.   Proceedings
          Following  Okumuras  receipt of the  Lougee  settlement
proceeds, an updated writ of execution was issued on May 3,  2007
that reflected the remaining balance of Okumuras judgment against
the  McLaughlins.   Okumura then began the process  of  executing
against  a  piece of real property in Fairbanks owned  by  Pamela
McLaughlin.
          The  McLaughlins objected, moving to quash the writ  of
          execution and cancel the notice of public sale of the property,
arguing  that Okumura had not shown good cause under  Civil  Rule
69(d)(1)  and AS 09.35.02029 for his delay in executing  on  that
piece  of  property.   Okumura  responded  that  he  had  already
satisfied  his  burden of showing good cause  for  his  delay  in
execution  during the litigation discussed above surrounding  his
request  for a new writ of execution.  He also asserted  that  he
had good cause for not previously executing against the Fairbanks
property  because the McLaughlins had listed no  real  estate  in
their  bankruptcy proceeding and because the property had changed
hands several times over the previous decade.
          The  McLaughlins responded that [t]he prior  ruling  of
the  court  on  the  previous  Civil  Rule  69(d)  issue  is  not
dispositive  because the existence of the Fairbanks property  had
not  been  brought to light during the previous  litigation  over
whether Okumura had good cause for his delay.  MacDonald asserted
that the existence of the real property certainly would have been
raised  as  part of the defenses raised the last time around  but
that  the McLaughlins did not advise [him] that they had any real
estate  in  Fairbanks.  The McLaughlins also contended  that  the
various  transfers  of  the Fairbanks  property  did  not  excuse
Okumuras  failure to timely execute on it because  regardless  of
the  transfers, as a matter of law, [Okumura] had a judgment lien
against the [property] by virtue of [his] recorded judgment.
          The  superior  court denied the McLaughlins  motion  to
quash   the  writ  of  execution  and  cancel  the  public  sale,
explaining  that  Okumura had already shown just  and  sufficient
reasons after a more than five year lapse in obtaining a writ  of
execution  and  that he was not required to  once  again  make  a
showing  under Civil Rule 69(d) until 5 years have elapsed  since
the issuance of a writ of execution.  The McLaughlins appeal.
          2.   Okumura  was  not required to show  separate  good
               cause  for  his delay in executing against  Pamela
               McLaughlins  real property because he had  already
               obtained a new writ of execution.
          The   McLaughlins   argue   that   the   trial   courts
piggybacking the real-property execution on top of its  rationale
for  justifying  the settlement-monies execution  puts  the  cart
before  the  horse.   They  seem to  assume  that  AS  09.35.020s
requirement  that a creditor show good cause for a  five-year-or-
more  delay  in  execution is asset-specific   that  is,  that  a
creditor must show separate good cause for delay related to  each
piece  of  the  debtors property he wishes to levy.   Thus,  they
reason,  Okumura must show separate good cause for his  delay  in
execution  on  the Fairbanks property despite the  fact  that  he
already made a good cause showing in order to obtain the February
2007  writ  of execution just a couple months earlier.   But  the
plain  language  of  AS 09.35.020 simply does  not  support  this
interpretation, and the McLaughlins cite no other  authority  for
it.
          Alaska  Statute 09.35.020 requires a creditor  to  show
good  cause for delay in order to obtain a new writ of  execution
[w]hen  a  period of five years has elapsed after  the  entry  of
judgment and without an execution being issued on the judgment.30
          Okumura satisfied this requirement and obtained a new writ of
execution  in  February  2007.  That writ  of  execution  allowed
Okumura  to  levy  any  of the McLaughlins non-exempt  assets  to
satisfy  his judgment.  Accordingly, it was simply not  necessary
for  Okumura  to  once again make a showing of good  cause  under
AS  09.35.020  in May 2007 when he sought to levy  the  Fairbanks
property   a  period  of five years had not  elapsed  without  an
execution  being  issued.  The McLaughlins only recourse  was  to
pursue  their appeal of the superior courts granting of  Okumuras
February 2007 writ of execution discussed above.
          The  McLaughlins  also  contend  that  the  failure  of
Okumura to have discovered the real property and executed upon it
during  the five-year-period after judgment not only defeats  the
real-property execution but also completely undermines any  claim
of  just  cause  and due diligence in regard to  the  settlement-
monies execution. That is, they argue that the February 2007 writ
of  execution  should not have issued because Okumura  could  not
show  good cause for his delay in execution given his failure  to
execute  against  the  Fairbanks property  during  the  five-year
period.   But  the McLaughlins admittedly did not  bring  up  the
existence   of  the  Fairbanks  property  during  the  litigation
surrounding the February 2007 writ of execution, so that argument
is waived.
          Accordingly,  we affirm the superior courts  denial  of
the  McLaughlins motion to quash Okumuras writ of  execution  and
cancel  the  public  sale  of Pamela McLaughlins  Fairbanks  real
property.  We need not examine whether Okumura had separate  good
cause for not previously executing on the Fairbanks property.
     C.   The  Superior  Court  Did Not Err  in  Concluding  that
          MacDonald  Was  Not  Entitled To  Receive  40%  of  the
          McLaughlins   Settlement  Proceeds  from   the   Lougee
          Litigation as Attorneys Fees.
          1.   Proceedings
          In  1996  the McLaughlins entered into a fee  agreement
with  MacDonald specifying that he would pursue their malpractice
claims  against Robson on a 40% contingency fee basis.   In  2000
the  bankruptcy  court  approved of an  arrangement  whereby  the
McLaughlins bankruptcy trustee would
          (1)  employ  Michael MacDonald, attorney  for
          Pamela      and     Lorim[e]r     McLaughlin,
          individually, to pursue the estates causes of
          action  against Arthur Lyle Robson  (Robson),
          (and other responsible parties arising out of
          Robsons representation of the debtors)  on  a
          contingency fee basis (1/3 prior  to  appeal,
          40%   after  appeal,  and  50%  after  appeal
          concludes),  plus costs; and  (2)  share  the
          litigation  proceeds, net of  such  fees  and
          costs, with the debtor on a 50-50 basis.
          
The  bankruptcy  trustee  agreed to split  the  proceeds  of  any
recovery with the McLaughlins because of the nagging issues as to
the   extent   to   which  the  pre-petition  and   post-petition
malpractice belonged to the [McLaughlins] versus the Trustee, and
because  the [McLaughlins] were more familiar with the underlying
facts.   MacDonald  prosecuted the  suit  against  Robson,  which
resulted   in   a  $3,571,429.33  judgment  in  2001.   MacDonald
successfully  defended that judgment against  Robsons  appeal  in
2002.31  MacDonald levied the Lougee cause of action from  Robson
in  2003.  In 2004 MacDonald applied to the bankruptcy court  for
payment of 50% fees (the judgment having been affirmed on appeal)
on  the bankruptcy estates 50% share of $168,768.47 that had been
levied from Robson up to that point.
          Also in 2004 the bankruptcy trustee applied for and was
granted  permission  to  employ Flanigan as  special  counsel  to
pursue  the estates causes of action against Ken Lougee, and  his
firm Hughes Thorsness, et al. on a 40% contingency fee basis plus
costs.   The application stated that Flanigan has a separate  fee
agreement with the Debtors, on the same 40% term as the  trustee.
The application further stated that [t]here is no overlap between
the  attorney  fees owed attorneys MacDonald  and  Flanigan.   In
other  words,  MacDonald will not claim an attorney  fee  on  any
recovery from the Lougee litigation.  Flanigan pursued the Lougee
litigation, which ended in a settlement that was approved by  the
bankruptcy court in December 2006.  Flanigan received 40% of  the
$160,000  total  settlement, and the remainder was  to  be  split
evenly  between  the  McLaughlins  and  their  bankruptcy  estate
(meaning,  effectively, that the estate and the McLaughlins  each
paid  a  40%  contingency fee to Flanigan on  their  share).  The
McLaughlins  $44,485.33  portion  of  the  settlement  money  was
released to the superior court rather than to the McLaughlins due
to Okumuras writ of attachment.
          After  Okumura  obtained  his  February  2007  writ  of
execution   but  before  he  actually  received  the  McLaughlins
$44,485.33  share  of the Lougee settlement,  MacDonald  filed  a
motion  with  the  superior  court requesting  that  40%  of  the
$44,485.33  be  released  directly  to  him  as  attorneys  fees.
Because  his  1996  fee agreement with the McLaughlins  specified
that  he  was  entitled to 40% of any recovery on the McLaughlins
judgment  against Robson, and because the Lougee cause of  action
was  levied  from  Robson  pursuant to that  judgment,  MacDonald
argued  that he was entitled to 40% of the McLaughlins  share  of
the Lougee settlement.
          Okumura  opposed MacDonalds motion, arguing that  [t]he
origin  and  disbursement of [the Lougee settlement]  funds  have
already  been  determined  by  the  Bankruptcy  Court  and   that
MacDonalds  motion was a second effort to recover  []  fees  from
funds  that  have  already  been  subject  to  another  attorneys
contingency  fee.   Okumura  pointed  out  the  language  in  the
bankruptcy  trustees application to retain Flanigan stating  that
MacDonald will not claim an attorney fee on any recovery from the
Lougee  litigation and noted that MacDonald had not  objected  to
that language.
          MacDonald countered that [t]he bankruptcy Trustees fees
are separate and distinct from the [McLaughlins] and that the fee
approval  application quoted by Okumura relate[d] to approval  of
attorneys  fees  for  the bankruptcy trustees  one  half  of  the
settlement  with  Hughes Thorsness, not the fees  that  might  be
          owing to MacDonald & Levengood by the McLaughlin[]s from their
one  half  of the recovery.  He also appealed to equity,  arguing
that  his fee request was justified because [t]here [was] only  a
comparatively small recovery on the [Robson] claim when  compared
to  the  amount of work that was put in by [his] firm and  if  it
were not for the efforts of [his] firm there would be nothing for
[Okumura] to levy.
          In  April  2007  the  superior court denied  MacDonalds
motion for attorneys fees.  The McLaughlins appeal.
          2.   MacDonald  does not have a perfected claim  to  an
               additional  40% of the McLaughlins  share  of  the
               Lougee settlement.
          As Okumura pointed out below, MacDonald was served with
a  document  in which counsel for the bankruptcy trustee  clearly
stated to the bankruptcy court:  There is no overlap between  the
attorney  fees owed attorneys MacDonald and Flanigan.   In  other
words,  MacDonald will not claim an attorney fee on any  recovery
from  the Lougee litigation. (Emphasis added.)  If MacDonald  did
not  agree with this seemingly unambiguous statement, he had  the
opportunity  to  correct it.  But the bankruptcy  court  approved
Flanigans  fee  agreement as well as the  Lougee  settlement  and
payout   schedule  with  no  objection  from  MacDonald  and   no
indication  of  the  existence of a side  agreement  under  which
MacDonald  would receive a separate 40% fee from the  McLaughlins
share of the settlement on top of Flanigans 40% fee.
          Moreover, as Okumura noted below, if MacDonald were  to
recover  his requested fees, the McLaughlins share of the  Lougee
settlement  would  have been subject to the separate  contingency
fees  of  two  attorneys  that is, the McLaughlins share  of  the
Lougee settlement would have been reduced first by the payment of
a 40% fee to Flanigan, and then further reduced by the payment of
a  40%  fee to MacDonald, for a total fee of 64%.  The fact  that
under  such  an arrangement the McLaughlins would be entitled  to
only  36%  of the money recovered on their behalf (leaving  aside
Okumuras  claim  to  it)  is  enough to  cast  serious  doubt  on
MacDonalds claim for fees.  If both the Robson and Lougee  causes
of  action  had been pursued by the same attorney, that  attorney
would  not  be  entitled to recover two separate 40%  contingency
fees  from  the Lougee settlement proceeds absent  a  very  clear
agreement to that effect.  No such clear agreement was  shown  to
the superior court or to this court on appeal.
          Lastly,  MacDonald has not demonstrated that he  has  a
properly  perfected statutory attorneys lien.  The only statutory
lien   provision   possibly   applicable   to   this   case    is
AS  34.35.430(a)(4), which allows for an attorneys  lien  upon  a
judgment . . . from the giving of notice of the lien to the party
against  whom the judgment is given and filing the original  with
the  clerk where the judgment is entered and docketed.  MacDonald
obtained  a judgment against Robson on behalf of the McLaughlins,
but  there  is  no  evidence that he ever perfected  a  statutory
attorneys lien on that judgment.  The only attorneys lien in  the
record  is  inexplicably  captioned with Okumuras  original  1992
lawsuit  against  the  McLaughlins rather  than  the  McLaughlins
lawsuit  against  Robson, and it was apparently  recorded  rather
than filed with the clerk of court.  MacDonald had the burden  of
showing  that  he had a valid, properly perfected attorneys  lien
that  would cover the Lougee settlement proceeds.  He did not  do
so.
          Accordingly, the superior court did not err in  denying
MacDonalds  claim  for an additional 40% fee on  the  McLaughlins
share of the Lougee settlement.
V.   CONCLUSION
          For  the  foregoing  reasons, we  AFFIRM  the  superior
courts grant of Okumuras request for a new writ of execution,  as
well  as  the  superior  courts refusal to prevent  Okumura  from
executing on Pamela McLaughlins Fairbanks real estate.   We  also
AFFIRM  the  superior  courts denial of  MacDonalds  request  for
attorneys fees in the amount of 40% of the McLaughlins  share  of
the Lougee settlement proceeds.
_______________________________
     1     Much  of this factual background is derived  from  our
opinions  in  two prior related cases, Compton v. Chatanika  Gold
Camp  Props., 988 P.2d 598, 599-600 (Alaska 1999) and  McLaughlin
v. Lougee, 137 P.3d 267, 268-69 (Alaska 2006).

     2     See  11  U.S.C.  523(a)(2)(A) (2006) (debts  resulting
from fraud by the debtor are not dischargeable in bankruptcy).

     3     This  factual issue was never fully litigated  because
the  McLaughlins action against Hughes Thorsness and Ken  Lougee,
an  attorney  at  the firm, ended in a settlement  following  our
remand  in  McLaughlin,  137  P.3d at  269,  280  (reversing  the
superior  courts  grant of defendant Hughes  Thorsnesss  12(b)(6)
motion  for  failure to state a claim and remanding  for  further
proceedings).

     4     Robson v. McLaughlin, Mem. Op. & J. No. 1114, 2002  WL
31630774 (Alaska, November 20, 2002).

     5     We adopt the parties practice of referring to this  as
the  Lougee  cause  of  action  and the  ensuing  litigation  and
settlement as the Lougee litigation and Lougee settlement.

     6    McLaughlin, 137 P.3d at 280.

     7      20  P.3d  583, 584 (Alaska 2001) (citations omitted).
Alaska

     8    Id.

     9    Id.

     10     Falconer  v.  Adams, 20 P.3d 583, 584  (Alaska  2001)
(citations omitted).

     11    Alaska Rule of Civil Procedure 69(d)(1):

          Whenever a period of five years shall  elapse
          without  an  execution  being  issued  on   a
          judgment, no execution shall issue except  on
          order of the court in the following manner:
          
               (1)  The judgment creditor shall file  a
          motion supported by affidavit with the  court
          where  the judgment is entered for  leave  to
          issue an execution.  The motion and affidavit
          shall  state the names of the parties to  the
          judgment, the date of its entry, the  reasons
          for failure to obtain a writ for a period  of
          five  years and the amount claimed to be  due
          thereon  or the particular property of  which
          possession  was  adjudged  to  the   judgment
          creditor remaining undelivered.
          
     12    Alaska Rule of Civil Procedure 69(d)(5):

          At the time of filing the motion for leave to
          issue  execution  or at any  time  thereafter
          before  the  final  order  is  entered,   the
          judgment  creditor may cause the property  of
          the  judgment debtor to be attached and  held
          during  the  time said motion is pending  and
          until  the  final  order  is  entered.   Such
          attachment  shall be made in accordance  with
          these rules and applicable statutes, and  for
          the  purpose of such attachment the  judgment
          shall  be deemed an implied contract for  the
          direct  payment of money.  In the event  that
          the  court  shall  order  that  execution  be
          issued,  it  shall  further  order  that  any
          property  of  the  judgment  debtor  attached
          hereunder  shall be sold for the satisfaction
          of such execution and the peace officer shall
          apply  the  property attached  by  the  peace
          officer  or  the  proceeds thereof  upon  the
          execution.
          
     13    Okumura was represented in the proceedings below by an
attorney, John Connors, though Okumura appears before us pro se.

     14     The McLaughlins point on appeal regarding this  issue
states that [t]he trial court erred in granting [Okumuras] Motion
for  Writ  of  Attachment against the McLaughlins  share  of  the
Lougee  settlement,  and it is Okumuras  motion  for  a  writ  of
attachment  that  they  include  in  their  excerpt.   But  their
argument on appeal focuses on whether the superior court erred in
granting Okumuras motion for a writ of execution given his multi-
year  delay,  not  whether the superior court erred  in  allowing
Okumura to attach the Lougee settlement proceeds, specifically.

     15     Brotherton v. Brotherton, 142 P.3d 1187, 1190 (Alaska
2006)  (Alaska  Statute 09.35.020 is implemented  by  Civil  Rule
69(d).).

     16    Id. at 1191 n.19.

     17    State, Dept of Revenue, Child Support Enforcement Div.
ex rel. Inman v. Dean, 902 P.2d 1321, 1325 (Alaska 1995).

     18    Id. (emphasis added).

     19     Brotherton, 142 P.3d at 1190 n.14 (citing  Magden  v.
Alaska USA Fed. Credit Union, 36 P.3d 659, 662 (Alaska 2001)).

     20    Id. at 1190-91.

     21    Id. at 1191.

     22     Id. at 1190 n.14 (citing Guttchen v. Gabriel, 49 P.3d
223, 227 (Alaska 2002)).

     23    36 P.3d 659 (Alaska 2001).

     24    Id. at 662.

     25    State, Dept of Revenue, Child Support Enforcement Div.
ex  rel.  Inman  v.  Dean,  902 P.2d  1321,  1325  (Alaska  1995)
(emphasis added).

     26    Alaska R. Civ. P. 69(d).  For example, in Brotherton v.
Brotherton we held that a creditor had good cause for  her  delay
in  execution  despite the fact that she did not  show  that  the
debtor lacked assets.  142 P.3d at 1190-91.

     27     The McLaughlins cite Schmidt v. Bretzlaff, 528 N.W.2d
760,  762  (Mich. App. 1995) (stating that [a] writ of  execution
will  be quashed if it would be illegal or inequitable to  permit
its  further  use  or  enforcement, but  reversing  lower  courts
decision  to  quash  writ  based  on  promissory  estoppel)   and
Creditors  Adjustment  Co. v. Newman, 197 P.  334,  337-38  (Cal.
1921)  (stating  that  [t]he right of the  court  to  recall  the
execution  cannot  be doubted if the issuance was  improperly  or
inadvertently made or authority therefore revoked, but  affirming
lower  courts  vacation  of  writ  of  execution  based  on   res
judicata).

     28     See  30  Am. Jur. 2d Executions, Etc.  272 (footnotes
omitted):

          Courts  have the equitable power to  restrain
          execution  upon a judgment in a proper  case.
          For  example,  if allowing the  execution  to
          proceed would result in an injustice, a court
          may  invoke  its equitable power to  restrain
          the  execution. . . . However, a  court  will
          not  restrain  the execution  on  a  judgment
          simply  on  the  ground that it  was  unjust,
          irregular, or erroneous, or because the court
          could,  in deciding the same case, have  come
          to  a  different  conclusion than  the  court
          entering the judgment.
          
     29    See supra subpart IV.A.2.

     30    See supra subpart IV.A.2.

     31     Robson v. McLaughlin, Mem. Op. & J. No. 1114, 2002 WL
31630774 (Alaska, November 20, 2002).

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