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You can search the entire site. or go to the recent opinions, or the chronological or subject indices. Maness v. Daily (05/16/2008) sp-6263

Maness v. Daily (05/16/2008) sp-6263, 184 P3d 1

     Notice:   This opinion is subject to correction  before
     publication  in  the  Pacific  Reporter.   Readers  are
     requested to bring errors to the attention of the Clerk
     of  the  Appellate  Courts, 303  K  Street,  Anchorage,
     Alaska 99501, phone (907) 264-0608, fax (907) 264-0878,
     e-mail corrections@appellate.courts.state.ak.us.


            THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF ALASKA

BRET F. MANESS, )
) Supreme Court No. S- 12040
Appellant,)
) Superior Court No. 3AN- 03-8513 CI
v. )
) O P I N I O N
JOHN DAILY, ERIC SMITH,)
TINAMARIE BUFFINGTON, THAD ) No. 6263 May 16, 2008
HAMILTON, ERIC SPITZER,)
CLIFTON PECK, MUNICIPALITY)
OF ANCHORAGE, ANCHORAGE)
POLICE DEPARTMENT, ALASKA)
STATE TROOPERS, )
)
Appellees.)
)
          Appeal  from the Superior Court of the  State
          of    Alaska,   Third   Judicial    District,
          Anchorage, John Suddock, Judge.

          Appearances:    Bret  F.  Maness,   pro   se,
          Atwater,  California.  Thomas  M.  McDermott,
          Assistant  Municipal  Attorney,    James   N.
          Reeves,  Municipal Attorney,  Anchorage,  for
          Appellees    John   Daily,   Clifton    Peck,
          Municipality  of  Anchorage,  and   Anchorage
          Police  Department.  Ruth Botstein, Assistant
          Attorney  General, Talis J. Colberg, Attorney
          General, Anchorage, for Appellees Eric Smith,
          Thad Hamilton, and Eric Spitzer.

          Before:    Fabe,  Chief  Justice,   Matthews,
          Eastaugh, and Carpeneti, Justices.   [Bryner,
          Justice, not participating.]

          MATTHEWS, Justice.
          At   a  sentencing  hearing  on  a  charge  of  illegal
possession of a firearm, a federal district court found that Bret
Maness  had  pointed a firearm at the officers who arrested  him.
The  main  question in this case is whether this finding  may  be
given  issue preclusive effect in a subsequent civil action where
Maness claims that the officers used excessive force in arresting
him.   We  conclude that issue preclusion is inappropriate.   The
sentencing court considered the events just before the arrest  to
be  irrelevant  and  did  not allow Maness  to  present  evidence
concerning them.
I.   FACTS
          On  June  27, 2001, Manesss former girlfriend Tinamarie
Buffington1  filed  a  petition  for  initiation  of  involuntary
commitment for Maness, alleging that Maness was very confused and
.  .  .  very delusional.  Based on her testimony, Superior Court
Judge  Eric S. Smith ordered that Maness be taken into  temporary
custody for emergency treatment pursuant to AS 47.30.700.
          Acting  on  Judge Smiths order, Alaska  State  Troopers
went to Manesss home in the early morning hours of June 28, 2001,
to  take  him  into  custody  and transport  him  to  the  Alaska
Psychiatric  Institute for evaluation.  Maness alleges  that  the
troopers  tried to break into his home and that they  engaged  in
stealth  tactics.   After  exchanging words  with  the  troopers,
Maness  fled  from them in his motor home down the Parks  Highway
toward  the Glenn Highway.  Maness was pursued by State  Troopers
and by members of the Anchorage Police Department, which had been
called for assistance.2  He was forced to stop his vehicle  after
the  tires  on  his motor home were punctured by  tire  deflation
devices.  Maness claims that he then exited his vehicle and  held
his  hands  up  in the air for several minutes.  After  believing
that he heard gunshots, Maness ran back into his vehicle, grabbed
a rifle, a handgun, and ammunition, and fled into the woods.
          The  police  found Maness around 7:00  a.m.   Precisely
what  happened  next is a source of controversy.   Maness  claims
that  without provocation he was shot in the back by the  police.
The police contend that Maness was threatening them and that they
shot him after he turned and pointed a rifle in their direction.
          Maness was charged in state court with eluding a  peace
officer  who  was attempting to serve a domestic  violence  order
[sic], assaulting officers by making threats and pointing a rifle
at them, and being a felon in possession of that rifle.  However,
all  of  the  state  charges  were  dismissed  because  the  main
testimony  supporting  the indictment was from  an  investigating
officer  who  merely  recited facts from  the  reports  of  other
officers.  Maness, however, was charged and convicted in  federal
district court for being a felon in possession of a firearm.   At
the  sentencing hearing, United States District Court Judge Ralph
R.  Beistline  found  that Maness had,  inter  alia,  engaged  in
assaultive conduct toward the police.  The court sentenced Maness
to ten years in jail, the maximum sentence allowable by statute.
II.  PROCEEDINGS
          Maness,  acting without legal counsel,  filed  a  civil
action against many of the participants in the events leading  to
his shooting and arrest.  The complaint named Judge Eric Smith as
a  defendant,  claiming that he had wrongly issued the  ex  parte
mental  commitment  order.  Also named  as  defendants  were  the
Alaska  State Troopers and individual Troopers Thad Hamilton  and
Eric   Spitzer.   The  complaint  alleged  that  Spitzer  falsely
reported to police dispatch that shots were fired at him and that
his  car was hit.  The complaint also alleged that after stopping
but  before pursuing Maness into the woods, Spitzer and  Hamilton
inspected  Spitzers vehicle and found no damage  yet  negligently
failed  to  report that Spitzers earlier report concerning  shots
was not true.
          The complaint also named the Municipality of Anchorage,
the  Anchorage  Police Department, and Anchorage Police  Officers
Clifton Peck and John Daily.  The complaint alleged that Peck had
shot  Maness in the back without warning, essentially  stating  a
claim  that excessive force was used to arrest Maness.  According
to  the  complaint,  after  Maness was  shot,  Daily  told  other
officers  on  the  scene  over  the  police  radio  that  he  had
previously  taken grenades off of Maness.  The complaint  alleged
that this statement was false and caused an unnecessary delay  in
obtaining  medical  treatment for  Maness.   The  complaint  also
alleged that both the Anchorage Police and the State Troopers had
wrongfully refused to return some of Manesss property.   Further,
the  complaint contained a claim for false imprisonment.   Maness
sought compensatory damages for his personal injuries and for the
loss of his property.  In addition, he requested punitive damages
and  injunctive  relief  in the form of a court  order  enjoining
Alaska police agencies from gunning people down at the drop of  a
dime  and enjoining Judges from issu[]ing Ex Parte orders on  the
whims of vindictive people.
          The    defendants    answered,   interposed    numerous
affirmative   defenses,  and  brought  a  series  of  dispositive
motions.
            Judge  Smith moved to dismiss for failure to state  a
claim  upon which relief can be granted based on the doctrine  of
absolute  judicial immunity.  Superior Court Judge  John  Suddock
granted this motion.
          The  State,  including Troopers Hamilton  and  Spitzer,
also  moved  to  dismiss.   The States motion  was  based  on  AS
09.65.210,  which  precludes a person  from  recovering  personal
injury  damages  if the person when injured was  engaged  in  the
commission  of  a felony which substantially contributed  to  the
persons  injury.3  This motion was premised on Manesss conviction
of  the felony of being a felon in possession of a firearm.   The
State  argued  that  this  felony  substantially  contributed  to
Manesss  injury  because while armed illegally he had  threatened
the  police  and  this threat resulted in his being  shot.4   The
State  argued that Maness was precluded from contesting  that  he
had  threatened the police by the findings of the  United  States
District Court that were made at Manesss sentencing.
          A few days after the State filed its motion to dismiss,
the  Municipality  of  Anchorage moved for  summary  judgment  on
          behalf of the Anchorage Police Department and Anchorage Police
Officers   Daily  and  Peck.   This  motion  was  based   on   AS
09.65.210(1)  and  on  the  additional  ground  that  the  police
officers were shielded by qualified immunity.
          Maness  opposed  these motions.  He  claimed  that  the
felon  in  possession  of  firearms  conviction  could  not  have
substantially  contributed  to my personal  injury  as  the  mere
possession of firearms . . . is no reason to shoot me in the back
with  no warning.  And he contended that he was not permitted  at
the  sentencing hearing to present evidence concerning the events
leading  up to his shooting:  Judge Beistline precluded  me  from
presenting  any  evidence  or  testimony  at  trial  or  at   the
sentencing  hearing,  ruling  that  it  was  not  relevant  to  a
possession . . . charge.
          The  States  motion  to dismiss and  the  Municipalitys
motion for summary judgment were decided by the superior court in
a   written   order.   At  the  outset  the  court   denied   the
Municipalitys motion for summary judgment as such, noting that it
had  filed no sworn affidavits setting forth admissible evidence.
But  the  court  ruled that the motion would be considered  as  a
motion  to  dismiss  since it overlapped  the  States  motion  to
dismiss.   As  to  the  latter, the  court  recognized  that  the
critical  issue was whether Maness had pointed a  weapon  at  the
officers.  The court wrote that
          [t]he mere fact that he illegally possessed a
          firearm while fleeing in the woods would  not
          alone  enable  the officers to use  excessive
          force in his apprehension, with impunity from
          suit.   The crime, standing alone, could  not
          then    be   said   to   have   substantially
          contributed  to his injury.  It is  only  the
          alleged  pointing  of  the  weapon   at   the
          officers  that causally links the offense  to
          the  outcome.   That allegation implicates  a
          factual  issue  outside the pleadings,  which
          would   normally  defeat  an  ARCP   12(b)(6)
          motion.
          
          The  court  went  on to note that the  district  courts
sentencing  findings could resolve the factual issue:   If  Judge
Beistline  found Mr. Maness was shot during or immediately  after
an  assault  with  a  deadly weapon, and that finding  binds  Mr.
Maness,  the excessive force personal injury claim is  no  longer
viable.5   Addressing this issue, the court  concluded  that  the
district  court had found by clear and convincing  evidence  that
Mr.  Maness  had  in fact assaulted the officers  with  a  deadly
weapon.   The  superior court further observed that [b]ecause  of
that found fact, [the district court] enhanced the sentence under
the  federal  sentencing guidelines.  Thus, [the courts]  finding
was necessary to the judgment, although not to the conviction.
          The  superior court took note of Manesss claim that  he
had  not  been  afforded a fair opportunity to  present  evidence
regarding  the  assault allegations.  The court asked  Maness  to
file an affidavit setting forth the details of any curtailment of
          an opportunity to present his side of the story.  Maness accepted
this  invitation  by filing an affidavit of his federal  defender
who claimed that Maness was precluded from presenting evidence as
to  what  occurred just before he was shot.  But after  reviewing
this  affidavit  and  the  federal  sentencing  transcript,   the
superior court entered an order that concluded that Maness had  a
full  and fair opportunity to tell his tale, did so in fact,  and
that  his  account of excessive police force was  considered  and
rejected by the federal court.  The court found that the doctrine
of  collateral  estoppel  precluded Maness  from  contesting  the
district  courts  findings that he had pointed  a  rifle  at  the
police  and  that  this assaultive conduct led to  the  shooting.
Accordingly,  the  superior court ordered the  dismissal  of  the
excessive force claim.
          In  the same order the superior court dismissed Manesss
claim for injunctive relief.  The court wrote:
               The  State  moves to dismiss  Plaintiffs
          count  for injunctive relief to enjoin police
          authorities from using excessive  force,  and
          Alaska   judges   from   issuing   ex   parte
          commitment   orders  without   conducting   a
          screening  investigation.   This   court   is
          without power to enjoin other Alaskan  judges
          to  interpret state law in a particular  way.
          Nor  can  this  court broadly  enjoin  police
          officers  to refrain from the use  of  deadly
          force in unspecified situations, the facts of
          which  are not before the court.  The  motion
          to dismiss the count for injunctive relief is
          granted.
          
          Subsequently Manesss remaining claims against the State
and   the   Municipality  were  resolved  by  stipulation.    The
stipulation reserved Manesss right to appeal the dismissal of his
injunctive relief and excessive force claims.
III. DISCUSSION
          On  appeal  Maness  argues that the  dismissal  of  his
excessive force claim based on findings made by the United States
District  Court at his sentencing was improper.  He  also  argues
that  the temporary custody order entered under AS 47.30.700  did
not  comply  with  statutory and constitutional requirements  and
that  injunctive  relief barring similar  orders  in  the  future
should  have been issued.  Finally, Maness argues that the  order
dismissing  Judge Smith on judicial immunity grounds  was  error,
but only insofar as injunctive relief was sought.
          We  address first the main issue, the dismissal of  the
excessive force claim.
     A.   Excessive Force
          1.   Collateral  estoppel  does  not  bar  Maness  from
               pursuing his excessive force claim.
               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          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